rajasthan & berber

a high concentration of  0- blood is in the rajasthan & berber peoples

 

 

http://www.earth-cultures.co.uk/cultures/people-of-rajasthan-india

People of Rajasthan, India

Rajasthan has a large indigenous populace:

The Meo and Minas (Minawati) in Alwar, Jaipur, Bharatpur, and Dholpur areas. The Banjara are travelling tradesmen and artisans. The Gadia Lohar is the ironsmith (lohar) who travels in bullock carts (Gadia), who generally make and repair agricultural and household implements. The Bhils are one of the oldest peoples in India, and inhabit the districts of Bhilwara, Chittaurgarh, Dungarpur, Banswara, Udaipur and Sirohi and are famous for their skill in archery. The Grasia and nomadic Kathodi live in the Mewar region. Sahariyas are found in the Kota district, and the Rabaris of the Marwar region are cattle breeders.

The Oswals hail from Osiyan near Jodhpur, are successful traders and are predominately Jains. While the Mahajan (the trading class) is subdivided into a large number of groups, some of these groups are Jain, while others are Hindu.

In the north and west, the Jat and Gujar are among the largest agricultural communities. The Gujars who are Hindus who dwell in eastern Rajasthan. The nomadic Rabari or Raika are divided in two groups the Marus who breed camels and Chalkias who breed sheep and goats.

The Muslims form less than 10% of the population and most of them are Sunnis. There is also a small but affluent community of Shiaite Muslims known as Bhoras in south eastern Rajasthan.

The Rajputs, though they represent only a small proportion of the populace, are the most influential section of the people in Rajasthan. They are proud of their martial reputation and of their ancestry

Hinduism, the religion of most of the population, is generally practiced through the worship of Brahma, Shiva, Shakti, Vishnu, and other gods and goddesses. Nathdwara is an important religious centre for the Vallabhacharya sect of Krishna followers. There are also followers of the Arya Samaj, a reforming sect of modern Hinduism, as well as other forms of that religion.

Jainism is also important; it has not been the religion of the rulers of Rajasthan but has followers among the trading class and the wealthy section of society. Mahavirji, Ranakpur, Dhulev, and Karera are the chief centres of Jain pilgrimage.

The Dadupanthi forms another important religious sect the followers of Dadu (d. 1603), who preached the equality of all men, strict vegetarianism, total abstinence from intoxicating liquor, and lifelong celibacy.

Islam, the religion of the State’s second largest religious community, expanded in Rajasthan with the conquest of Ajmer by Muslim invaders in the late twelfth century. Khwajah Muin-ud-Din Chishti, the Muslim missionary, had his headquarters at Ajmer, and Muslim traders, craftsmen, and soldiers settled there.

The State’s population of Christians and Sikhs is small.

The Berber people

Also called Imazighen(in antiquity, known asLibyans by the Greeks), the Berber are the indigenous people of North Africa, west of the Nile Valley. Many Berbers call themselves some variant of the word Imazighen (singular:Amazigh), possibly meaning “free people” or “free and noble men”. The word has probably an ancient parallel in the Roman name for some of the Berber, “Mazices”.

The name Berber comes from the name given to this people by the Romans, meaning barbarians. The history of the Berber people in northern Africa is both extensive and diverse. Their oldest ancestors settled in the East of Egypt. Many are the references to this old people in Greek, Roman and Phoenician texts. In fact, Berber is a generic name given to numerous heterogeneous ethnic groups who share similar cultural, political and economical practices.

The Arabization of the Berber people happened in three stages. First it was the contact with Arabic invaders in the 7th century. The second stage started with the arrival of the Bedouins in the 11th century. And finally the 3rd stage took place between the 15th and 17th centuries and it was accelerated by the arrival of Andalusian refugees.

Contrary to the romantic, popular image that portrays Berbers as nomadic people who cross the desert in camels, their main activity is sedentary agriculture, which they carry out in mountains and valleys. But their long-recorded influence in trading in the region is also true. They were the first to open the commercial routes between Western Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa. They were responsible for bringing goods from beyond the Sahara desert to Northern African cities.

Nowadays, besides the traditional means of living, there is a new element which is part of the economy of Berber families, namely income from the large number of immigrants in Europe, especially in France. Along several millennia the Berber language, Tamazight, has gradually turned into nearly thirty existing languages and hundreds of dialects, to say nothing of several others which disappeared long ago like Guanche spoken in The Canary Islands. Although the Berber language is basically oral, Berbers have had their own writing system, called Libico-Berber, for at least 2,500 years. At present this alphabet is used by the Touaregs but the Latin alphabet with a few variations and the Arabic alphabet are the most commonly used.

Berber society has traditionally been divided into farmers and merchants. Cultivation of the land was considered lower-class work whilst upper classes were merchants. Normally sedentary farming groups would pay tribute to a merchant local chief, as guarantee to be defended in return. However, as time went by, these farmers acquired a certain amount of wealth while, at the same time, the economic importance of commercial routes fell. Besides, these groups were given priority by colonial and post colonial authorities, in detriment of the traditional power merchants used to have.

Their architecture is as varied as the countries they live in. Berber constructions in the hills of Jebel Nebusa are among the most remarkable. They are underground houses carved vertically or horizontally in limestone. Some of them look like ordinary caves on the slopes of hills. Others have been deeply dug on the ground and they have a complex net of rooms around a central hole which is used as a fountain.

As for their beliefs, since their conversion to Islam in the 7th century (they were mostly Christians before this time) they have been faithful observant of its rules, except for the Ramadan fast that travellers are not obliged to follow. Like most Muslims in North Africa, many Berbers believe in the continuous presence of several spirits (djinns). Divination is carried out through the Koran. Most men use protecting amulets which contain verses from The Koran.

In Morocco the Drawa Berbers inhabit the region of the river Dra Valley; The Dades live in the North East; The Mesgita, Seddrat and Zeri along inflowing rivers of the North West; The Ghomara live in the Moroccan Rif, the north-eastern region of the country, north of Fez; The Kabyle, meaning “the tribes”, originally referred to all Berbers. However, nowadays the term covers only Berbers living in Al-Quabail Mountains, and The Sousi in High Western Atlas Mountains.

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