wild origins

happy irish day!  march 17   (17 is the number of navigation)



phe phi pho phum  i smell the blood of an irish one.

scientists are beginning to piece together the entire complex origins of the celts & scots.

arabic, berber, uralic, basque, celt, (nomads of the lost tribes) AO bloodline  (alpha omega)

the origins of the irish – gaelic  people are so varied & complex, a melting pot of genomes from different parts of the world including south russia , siberia, eastern europe, the fertile crescent of the middle east iraq, iran (old ireland), ancient su(mari)a, assyira, arabia ,iberia armenia, romania,  egypt ,the black sea region, sardinia, spain, new iberia basque country, f-irance, welsh land & scotland.

when ireland was under british rule,  the potato famine killed thousands of irish people. history shows one of the biggest genocides in history were the irish people under british rule.

piecing together the history & origins of the irish  & scottish people also tied in with the nordic peoples





the corrs



words from celtic origin

From English:

From French:

  • bachiller “graduate”, from French bachelier and this from late Latin baccalaureatusbachelor“.
  • batallabattle“. From bataille from battualiamilitary drill in fencing,” from Latin battuere, see batir below.
  • billarbilliard“.
  • brigadabrigade
  • brochebrooch, clasp, clip”. From Old French broche “a spit,” from Vulgar Latin (*)brocca “a nail, spike,” from Latin broccus, brocchus “a nail, projecting (adj.), buck-toothed (adj.)” from Celtic (*)brokko- “a pin, badger.”
  • coñacbrandy
  • cremacream” from French crème
  • debate “dispute, quarrel”. from Old French debat “discussion, controversy, contest” (Modern French débat, from debattre, debatre, “to fight, wrestle, struggle,” from de- + battre, batre “to fight, strike,” from Latin battere, battuere, see batir above.
  • dolmen from French dolmen
  • embajadorambassador” and this from gaulish ambi-actos “who serves around”.
  • jabalina, from Middle French javeline, diminutive of javelot; akin to Irish gabhla “spear”, Welsh gaflach “dart”, Breton gavelod
  • tenería “tannery”, from French tannerie, from tan “tanbark”; akin to Breton tann “red oak”, Old Cornish tannen, Old Irish teine “holly”, Irish teine “furze, gorse”.
  • pingüino “penguin” from fr. pingouin.
  • tonelbarrel” from French tonel and this from Celtic *tunna “skin”
  • toneladaton” see *tonel
  • truhán “buffoon, jester” from French truand

From Italian:

From Late or Vulgar Latin:

  • abedulbirch tree” from late Latin betula “birch”, diminutive of Gaulish betuā “birch”; akin to Old Irish bethe, Irish/Scottish beith, Manx beih, Welsh bedw, Breton bezv. The a of abedul is by the influence of Spanish abetofir tree.
  • álamowhite poplar
  • alondralark” (OSp aloa) from gaulish alauda
  • alosashad
  • ambuesta
  • amelga “plot of land marked for planting”
  • añicos “shards, smithereens”
  • arpendearpent” (OSp arapende) from Latin arapennis “old measure”
  • banzo “cross-bar” from common Celtic wankios
  • baranda “railing, balustrade”
  • bazospleen” from Latin badios “red”
  • beleñohenbane” from gaulish beleniom “henbane”
  • belesa “leadwort”
  • berrendo “bicolor(ed) (animal); pronghorn bull”
  • berrowatercress” from commom Celtic *beruro “watercress”
  • berrueco, barrueco “granitic crag, irregular pearl, round nodule”
  • betúntar” from Latin *bitumen
  • bezo “big lip”
  • bodollo “pruning hook”
  • boque/*bucobilly-goat, buck”
  • bosta “dung” from *boud-sta (PIE gwou- “excrement”) Proto-Celtic: boud-ro “dirty”
  • brecacommon pandora” from Celtic *brĭcco “spotted, speckled”
  • OSp bren “bran; filth”
  • breña “scrubland”
  • brezoheather
  • británicoBritish
  • brizo “cradle, lap”
  • brujawitch
  • bucobilly goat” from a Celtic *bukko
  • bustar “cow pasture”
  • camba “standard, sheth (of plow)”, cambija “water tower”
  • cambrianoCambrian
  • camino “way” from Celtic *camanos through lat. caminus
  • cantiga “song”
  • carrocart
  • cayo
  • centollo “spider crab”
  • colmado
  • colmenabeehive
  • combleza “mistress, home-wrecker”
  • correabelt
  • corro “circle”
  • cresa “maggot”
  • cuetohillock
  • duerna “trough”
  • embarazar
  • engorar “to addle
  • eranela
  • galga “large stone”
  • gallardogaillard” from French gaillard
  • ganchohook
  • garra “claw, talon”
  • garza “heron”
  • gavilla “handful, fagot”
  • germánicoGermanic
  • gladíola/gladiola
  • greña “stubborn or tangled hair”
  • gubia through the Latin gulbia from Celtic *gulbia
  • güero ~ huero “vain, vacuous, without substance”
  • landa “open field”
  • lanzalance
  • lanzar “to launch”
  • lata “tin, tin can”
  • légamo “slime, mud”
  • legualeague (unit)
  • lía “dregs, lees”
  • llanta
  • loja, locha
  • losaflagstone” from hisp-Celtic *lausa “flagstone”
  • minamine” through the Latin mina. However asturian mena ‘vein’ directly from Celtic *mena.
  • páramomoorland
  • pieza “piece” from Celtic *pĕttĭa through the Latin pĕtia.
  • pingüinopenguin
  • pinzón “finch”
  • pote “pot”
  • quéjigo “Portuguese oak”
  • raya “line”
  • rodaballo “brill, seabass”
  • sábaloshad
  • sabuesohound
  • sayatunic“, *sayocloak” through the Latin sagium from Celtic *sagos
  • sel “mountain pasture, commons”
  • serna “ploughed or sown field”
  • soga “rope”
  • taladro “auger, drill”
  • taninotanine
  • tarugo “wooden peg”
  • tejónbadger
  • tenería
  • terco “stubborn”
  • tollo “mire, muddy place”
  • tona
  • tranca “cudgel, club”
  • trapo “rag”
  • varga “straw- or thatch-roofed hut”
  • varón “man”
  • vasallovassal” from Celtic *vassallos “servant” through the Latin vassallus
  • vereda “path” from Celtic *voretom through the Latin vereda “way”
  • yezgo, yiezgo “dwarf elder”

Inherited Hispano-Celtic

  • acarrear= to cart, to transport: from a- + carro (see carro below) + the verbal infinitive suffix -ar.
  • álamo “white poplar” (also Asturian llamera); akin to Irish leamhán “elm”, Welsh llwyf, Cornish elow, Breton evlec’h “elm”
  • alondra “lark” (OSp aloa), from Gaulish alauda “crest lark”, derivative of *ala “swan”, akin to Ir eala, W alarch
  • ambuesta, (also Catalan embosta, almosta), from Gaulish ambostā “hands together”; akin to Old Irish imbas
  • amelga, from *ambelica, from ambi “around” + el- “to go” + -ica; akin to Old Irish adellaim “to visit, go to”, Welsh elo “I went”, Cornish ella “he was going”
  • añicos “smithereens” (also Old Galician anaco, Old Catalan anyoc), from *ann- + -acos
  • Old Spanish arapende “arpent”; akin to Old Irish airchenn “end, extremity”, Welsh arbenn “chief”, erbyn “against”, Cornish erbynn “id.”
  • banzo “cross-bar”, from *wankio “bar, beam”; akin to Irish féige “ridgepole”
  • baranda “railing, balustrade”, (also Portuguese varanda, Catalan barana) from *varandā, from *rannā “part, portion”; Welsh rhan, Cornish/Breton rann, Irish roinn
  • beleño “henbane”, from belenion (Pseudo-Aristotle, De plantis, 7.821); akin to Welsh bela “henbane”, Old Irish béal “sun”
  • belga= of Belgium, a Belgian: from Latin Belga, singular of Belgae, from Gaulish Belgae, possibly meaning “the threatening (ones), the swollen (ones),” the IE root *bʰel-ǵʰ- (cf. Dutch belgen ‘to worsen’, originally ‘to swell’), enlargement of *bʰel- “to swell[1]; akin to Old Irish bolgaid ‘(s)he swells’.
  • berrendo “bicolor; pronghorn”, originally just “pronghorn”, from *barrovindos “white-tipped”, from *barros “tip, peak” + vindos “white”; akin to Irish/Breton barr “peak”, Cornish/Welsh bar “id.”; also Old Irish find, Ir/Sc fionn, Welsh gwyn, Breton gwenn
  • berro “watercress”, from *beruro; akin to Welsh berwr, Breton/Cornish beler, Old Irish birar, Irish biolar, Scottish biolaire
  • berrueco “granite crag, cliff”, from ver “over” and rocca “rock”
  • berzo (dial.) (also OSp brizo), from *bertium “load”; akin to Irish/Scottish beárt “load”, bertaim “to rock”
  • bezo “big lip, lip blubber”, from OSp beço “snout”, from *beiccion “animal’s mouth”, from *baicciō “to yell”; akin to Old Irish béccim, Irish béic ‘yell, roar’, Scottish beuc, Welsh beichio ‘to low, sob’, Cornish begi ‘to bray’, Breton begiad ‘to bleat’
  • bodollo (Huesca) “pruning hook”, from *vidubion (also French vouge, Occitan vezoig); akin to Welsh gwyddif “billhook”, Cornish gwydhyv “id.”, Irish fiodhbha “sickle”, Breton gouzifiad “boar-spear”
  • breña “scrubland; rocky terrain”, from *brigna, from briga “fortress”; akin to Middle Irish brí, genitive brig “mountain”, Scottish breaghe “fortified hill”, Welsh bre “hill”, bryn “id”, Cornish bre, brenn “hill”, Breton bre “hill”, bern “brooch, prickles”
  • brezo “heather” (also Navarre beruezo, Galician breixo, Asturian berezu), from OSp bruezo, from *brocceus, from brūcus, from HispCelt *vroicos; akin to Welsh/Cornish grug (< *wrūcos < *wroicos), Middle Breton groegan, Old Irish froích, fróech, Irish fraoch. Similarly, Catalan bruc, Occitan bruga, Milanese brüg < *brūca.
  • bruja “witch” (also Port bruxa, Arag broixa, Catal bruixa), from *bruxtia, from *brixta “magic”; akin to Middle Welsh brith-ron “magic wand”, Breton bre “witch, magic”, breoù “spells, charms”, Old Irish brichtu “charms”, brigim “to light up, illuminate”, Brigit “shining one”.
  • brusco is from Italian brusco “sharp, tart, rough” and has two possible etymologies:
    • either it is akin to Welsh brysg “nimble, lively”, Irish/Scottish briosg “to be surprised, to jump for joy”
    • or it is from Medieval Latin bruscus “butcher’s broom plant”, a blend of Latin ruscus “butcher’s broom” and Late Latin brucus “heather”
  • bustar “cow pasture” (OSp busto “meadow, cowfield”, Portuguese bostar), from Celtiberian boustom “byre, cowshed” (Old Irish búas “wealth in cattle”) and aro “field” (cf. Irish ár, Welsh âr, Cornish/Breton ar)
  • camba “standard, sheth (of a plow)”, cambija “water tower” (also Portuguese canga “yoke”, Galician camba “wheel rim”), from *camba “crooked, bent”, feminine of *cambos; akin to Old Irish camm ‘crooked’, Irish/Scottish cam, Welsh cam, Cornish/Breton kam “curved, bent”; Welsh camedd “tire rim”, Breton kammed, both from *camijo
  • cargar= to load, to charge, to charge with a crime, to carry: from Late Latin carricare “to load,” from carrus, see carro below.
  • carril= a highway lane: from carro, see carro below.
  • carro= cart, cartload, car, streetcar, coach: from Latin carrus from Gaulish carros, from the IE root (*)kers- “to run” [2].
  • centollo “spider crab”, from Celtic cintu “first” + ollos “large, big”, referring to the fact it is larger than more common species of crabs; akin to Breton kent “before”, Cornish kens, kyns “before, early”, Welsh cynt “id.”, Irish céad “first”; and Middle Irish oll “big, large”, Welsh/Cornish oll “all, entire”
  • colmena “beehive” (also Portuguese colmeia), from *colmēnā “made from straw”, from *colmos “straw” (cf. Leonese cuelmo “straw”); akin to Breton kolo “stalk” (MBr koloff)
  • combleza “mistress, home-wrecker”, from OSp comblueça ~ conborça, from *combortia, from *com-berō “to take”; akin to Welsh cymeryd, cymryd ‘to take’, Breton kemer, komer, Cornish kemeres ‘to take’, Irish cobirth ‘help’
  • combo “bent”, from *combos; akin to
  • correa= belt, from Gallo-Latin corrigia “strap”; akin to Old Irish cuimrech “fetter”, Scottish cuibhreach “bond, chain”, Welsh cyfrwy “saddle”, Middle Welsh kyfreieu “leashes”, Cornish kevrenn “fastening, link”, Breton kevre “link, bond”
  • corro “circle”; akin to Middle Irish cor “circle”, corrán “sickle”, Welsh cor “circle”, Cornish kor “hedge, boundary; turn, shift”
  • cresa “maggot”, older queresa “maggot”, from *carisia “decay”; akin to Old Irish doro-chair “to fall”, Irish torchair, Scottish torchuir
  • duerna “trough” (also Galician dorna), from *durnos “hand”; akin to Irish dorn, Welsh dwrn, Breton dourn
  • engorar “to addle”, in OSp “to brood” (also Galician gorar “to brood, sit on eggs”); akin to Old Irish gorid ‘to warm’, Welsh/Cornish gori ‘to brood, sit (on eggs)’, Breton goriñ
  • galga “large stone”, from *gallicā, from *gallos; akin to Old Irish gall ‘stone pillar’, gallán ‘standing stone’
  • gancho “hook” (also French jachère “fallow field”), from *ganscio “small curved branch”; akin to Old Irish gesca “branch”
  • garra “claw, talon”; akin to Welsh gar “leg”, Corn/Bret garr “leg, stalk, stem”, Old Irish gairri “calves of the leg”, Ir cara
  • garza “heron” (also Portuguese garça), from *cárcia; akin to Welsh crychydd, Cornish kerghydh, Breton kerc’heiz
  • gavilla “handful”, from gabella, from *gabali; akin to Irish gabhaim “to take”, Welsh gafael “to grasp, hold”, Cornish gavel; also Welsh gefel “tongs”, Breton/Cornish gevel, Old Irish gabál
  • greña (OSp greñón “hair, beard”), from *grennos; akin to Old Irish grend “beard”, Irish greann, Welsh grann “eyelid”, Breton gourenn
  • gubia “gouge” (also Portuguese goiva, French gouge), from *gulbia; akin to Old Irish gulba “sting”, Scottish gilb “chisel”, Old Welsh gilb “piercer”, Welsh gylf “beak”, Old Breton golb “beak”, Breton golv “tailless”
  • güero ~ huero “vain, vacuous, without substance”, from dialectal gorar “to brood, sit on eggs” (see engorar above)
  • legua “league”, from Late Latin leucas; akin to Old Irish líe (gen. líac) “stone”, Irish liag
  • lía “dregs, lees”, légamo “slime, mud” (liga ~ lidia ~ liria “birdlime”, Basque lekeda), from *liga; Old Breton leh ‘silt, deposit’, Breton lec’hi ‘dregs’, Welsh llai ‘silt, deposit’
  • Old Spanish mañero ‘sterile, infertile’, from *mannuarius, derivative of Latin mannus ‘dwarf horse’ (cf. Portuguese maninho ‘sterile’), from Gaulish *mandos (cf. Basque mando ‘mule’)
  • mina “mine”, from *mēna (also Asturian mena “vein”), from *meina “ore”; akin to Welsh mwyn “ore”, Cornish moen, Irish míanach
  • páramo “moor”, attested as parami, from *par- + -amus (superlative).[1]
  • pinzón “finch” (var. pinchón; also Catalan pinsà, Occitan quinçon, Tuscan pincióne) from Gaulish pinciō(ne); akin to Welsh pinc, Breton pint
  • quejigo “Portuguese oak”, from earlier cajigo, from Asturian caxigu (also Aragonese caxico, caixico “oak”), from *cass- (cf. Gascon casse, French chêne) + -ico; akin to Middle Irish cas “curly, gnarled”, cassaim “to bend”, Irish cas “to twist, turn, spin”, Old Welsh cascord, Welsh cosgordd “twist”
  • rodaballo “brill, seabass”, from *rota-ballos “round-limbed”, from rota “wheel, circle” + ballos “limb”; akin to Old Irish roth, Welsh rhod, Cornish ros, Breton rod and Irish ball “limb”, Welsh balleg ‘sack, purse’, Cornish ballek ‘bow-net’
  • sábalo “shad” (also Portuguese sável, Catalan saboga), from *sabolos; akin to Old Irish sam “summer”, Welsh haf, Breton hañv, Cornish hav, with typical Celtic m > b lenition
  • saya; akin to Middle Irish sén “snare”, semmen “rivet”, Welsh hoenyn “snare”, hemin “rivet”
  • sel, from *sedlon “seat”; akin to Old Welsh hadl
  • serna “tilled or sown field” (also Old Galician senara, Galician senra, Portuguese seara), from *senaro, from *sen “separate, apart” + *aro “field”; akin to Old Irish sain “alone”, Welsh han “other”, Cornish honan “self, one’s own”, and Irish ár, Welsh âr, Cornish/Breton ar.
  • soga (also Portuguese/Italian soga, Old French seuwe), from Gaulish *sōca; akin to Welsh/Cornish syg “chain”, Breton sug “harness trace”, Irish suag “rope”, Scottish sùgan “straw rope”
  • taladro, from *taratron; akin to Welsh taradr “drill”, Irish tarachair, Cornish tarder, Breton tarar
  • tarugo, from *tarūcon; akin to Scottish tarag, tarrag “nail, stud”
  • tejón “badger” (also Portuguese texugo, Catalan teixó, toixó, Old French taisson, Italian tasso), from OSp texón, from Gaulish *taskios; akin to Old Irish (person’s name) Tadg “badger”, Scottish taghan “marten”, Old Welsh (person’s name) Teuhuant
  • terco “stubborn” (also Catalan enterch ‘stiff, rigid’, Béarnais terc ‘cruel, treacherous’, Italian terchio, tirchio ‘miserly, crude’), from *tercos; akin to Middle Irish terc, Welsh taerc ‘miserly, scarce’
  • tollo “mire, muddy place” (also Catalan toll “pool in a river”), from *tollos; akin to Irish/Cornish toll “hole”, Welsh twll, Breton toull
  • tona, from Galician tona “skin, bark”, from Gaulish *tunna, “skin, hide, rind”; akin to Old Irish tonn “skin, surface”, Irish tonn “hide, skin”, Welsh ton “skin”, Cornish ton “surface”, Breton tonnen “rind, surface”. From the same source came Late Latin tunna ‘wine-cask’,[2] whence French tonne ‘tun (wine-cask)’, tonneau ‘barrel’.
  • tranca “club, cudgel” (also Portuguese tarenco), from *tarinca; akin to Old Irish tairinge “iron nail, tine”, Irish tairne “metal nail”, Scottish tairnge “nail”
  • truhán “jester, baffoon” (also Portuguese truhão, Galician trogo “sadness, pity”, French truand “vagrant, beggar”); akin to Old Irish tróg “miserable”, Irish trogha, Scottish truagh, Welsh tru “wretched”, Breton truc “beggar”, Cornish troc “miser; wretched”
  • varga (also Portuguese/Catalan barga “wattle hut”, dial. French barge “haybale, straw heap”), from barga (Lat fundus bargae, in Tabula Veleiana, c. a.d. 2nd century); akin to Middle Irish barc “fort; woodhouse”
  • yezgo, yiezgo “elder” (also Asturian eldu, Occitan augué, êgou), from older yedgo, iedgo, from *edecus, alteration of Gaulish odecus, odicus (Marcellus Empiricus, De medicamentis liber, 7.13), which was also loaned into German Attich “dwarf elder, danewort”, Old Saxon aduk, Dutch hadik.


See also


  • celtic gaelic language
  • abanqueiro[2][3] [m] ‘waterfall’ < *'(beaver) dam’, formally a derivative in -arium of *abanco, from Proto-Celtic *abankos ‘beaver, water demon’[4][5] cognate of Old Irish abacc ‘dwarf’, Welsh afanc ‘beaver, dwarf’, Breton avank ‘dwarf, sea monster’. Akin also to Arpitan avans ‘wicker’.[6]
  • abeneiro [7] [m] ‘common alder‘, a derivative in -arium of *abona ‘river’, related to Breton aven, Welsh afon, Irish abha/abhainn ‘river’.
  • abrancar[8] ‘to embrace’, from Latin branca ‘paw’, of probable Celtic origin.[9]
  • abrollar[10] ‘to sprout’, from Celtic *brogilos ‘copse’.[11]
  • abruño/abruñeiro ‘prunus spinosa'[m] ‘sloe’, dialectal agruño,[12] from Vulgar Latin *aprūneu, from Latin prūnum, maybe under the influence of Celtic *agrīnio;[4][5][13] akin to Irish áirne, Welsh eirin ‘plum’; cognate of Occitan agranhon, Provençal agreno, Catalan aranyó,[14] Aragonese arañon, Spanish arándano (< *agran-dano).
  • álamo [m] ‘poplar tree’, from a probably Celtic etymon *alamos ‘idem’.[15]
  • albó, alboio [m] ‘shed, barn, enclosure’, from proto-Celtic *ɸare-bow-yo-,[16] cognate of Old Irish airbe ‘hedge, fence, pen’.
  • Old Galician ambas [f p] ‘waters, river’, ambas mestas [f] ‘confluence’,[17][18] from Celtic ambe[19] ‘water, river’, akin to Gaulish ambe ‘river’, Old Irish abu.
  • banastra [f] ‘basket’, from Old French banaste, from Celtic *benna ‘cart’.[20]
  • banzo[2] [m] (alternative spelling banço) ‘crossbar, beam’, from proto-Celtic *wank-yo-,[4] cognate of Spanish banzo; akin to Irish féige ‘ridgepole’.
Derivatives: banza ‘backrest’, banzado, banzao ‘palisade, dam’.
  • barga [f] ‘hut; wall made of hurdles; hurdle, fence’, from Celtic *wraga,[21][22] cognate of Spanish varga ‘hut’, French barge, akin to Old Irish fraig, Irish fraigh ‘braided wall, roof, pen’, Br gwrac’hell ‘haybale, rick of hay’.
Derivatives: bargo ‘stake or flagstone used for making fences or walls’; barganzo, bargado ‘hurdle, fence’.
  • barra [f] ‘garret, loft, upper platform’, from proto-Celtic *barro-,[4][5] cognate of Irish, Breton barr ‘summit, peak, top’, Welsh bar
  • bascullo [m] ‘bundle of straw; broom’, from proto-Celtic *baski- ‘bundle’,[5] cognate of Gascon bascojo ‘basket’, Asturian bascayu ‘broom’, Breton bec’h ‘bundle, load’.


  • berro [m] ‘watercress’, from proto-Celtic *beru-ro-,[4][5][23][24] cognate of Spanish berro; akin to Old Irish biror, Welsh berwr, Old Breton beror; similarly French berle ‘water parsnip’ (< berula ; Ir biolar, Breton beler).
  • bico [m] ‘beak, kiss’, from proto-Celtic *bekko-,[5][25][26] cognate of Italian becco, French bec.
Derivatives: bicar ‘to kiss’, bicaño ‘hill’, bicallo (a fish, Gadus luscus).
  • bidueiro[2] [m] < *betūlariu, biduo [m] < *betūlu, bidulo [m] < *betūllu ‘birch’,[27] from Celtic *betu- or *betū-,[4][5] cognate of Spanish biezo, Catalan beç, Occitan bèç (< bettiu); Spanish abedul, French bouleau, Italian betulla (< betula); akin to Irish beith, Welsh bedw, Breton bezv.
Derivatives: Bidueiral, Bidual ‘place with birch-trees’.
  • billa,[2] alternative spelling bilha, [f] ‘spigot; stick’ to Proto-Celtic *beljo- ‘tree, trunk’,[28] akin to Old Irish bille ‘large tree, tree trunk’, Manx billey ‘tree’, Welsh pill ‘stump’, Breton pil; cognate of French bille ‘log, chunk of wood’.
  • borba[2] [f] ‘mud, slime, mucus’, from proto-Celtic *borwâ-,[29] cognate of French bourbe ‘mud’; akin to Irish borb ‘mud, slime’, bearbh ‘boiling’, Welsh berw ‘boiling’, Breton berv ‘broth, bubbling’.
Derivatives: borbento ‘mucilaginous’.
  • borne [m] ‘edge’, from French borne ‘milestone, landmark’, from Old French bosne, bodne, from Vulgar Latin *bodĭna / *budĭna ‘border tree’, from proto-Celtic *botina ‘troop’.,[30] akin to Old Irish buiden, Welsh byddin ‘army’ (from *budīnā)
  • braga[2] [f] ‘trousers’, from proto-Celtic *braco-,[31] cognate of Spanish, Occitan braga, French braie, Italian brache.
Derivatives: bragal, bragada ‘spawn’, bragueiro ‘trus’.
  • braña [f] (alternative spelling branha) ‘meadow, bog, quagmire’, from proto-Celtic *bragno-,[5][32] cognate of Asturian and Cantabrian braña, Catalan braina, akin to Irish brén Welsh braen Breton brein ‘putrid’, Ir bréanar W braenar Br breinar ‘fallow field’.
Derivatives: brañal, brañeira, brañento ‘idem’.
  • breixo[33] [m] ‘heather’, from *broccius,[34] from Proto-Celtic *vroiki-,[28] akin to Old Irish froich, Welsh grug, gwrug, Cornish grug, Breton brug; cognate of Spanish brezo, Occitan bruga, French bruyère.
  • Old Galician bren [m] ‘bran’, maybe from Provençal brem, from proto-Celtic *brenno-,[35] cognate of French bran, Lombard bren.
  • bringa[36] [f]’stalk, rod’, from *brīnikā, from Celtic *brīnos ‘rod’; akin to Welsh brwyn ‘rush’, Cornish broenn, Breton broen; cognate of French brin ‘blade (of grass), stalk’.
  • brío[2] [m] ‘might, power’, from Italian brio, from Catalan/Old Occitan briu ‘wild’, from Celtic *brigos,[5] cognate of Occitan briu, Old French brif ‘finesse, style’; akin to Old Irish bríg ‘power’, Welsh bri ‘prestige, authority’, Breton bri ‘respect’.
  • Old Galician busto [m] ‘cattle farm, dairy’, from a Celtic compound *bow-sto-[37] meaning ‘cow-place’, akin to Celtiberian boustom ‘cow shed, byre’, Old Irish bua-thech ‘cow house/byre’; cognate of Portuguese bostar, Spanish bustar
Derivatives: bustar ‘pastures’.
  • cai [m] ‘quay, jetty’, maybe from French (itself from Norman) quai, from proto-Celtic *kag-yo-,[5][38][39] akin to Welsh cae, Cornish ke, Breton kae ‘hedge’; French chai ‘cellar’.
  • callao [m] ‘boulder; pebble’, from Celtic *kalyāwo- ‘stone’.[40]
  • cambiar ‘to change’, from Vulgar Latin cambiare, from proto-Celtic *kambo-,[4][5][41] cognate of French changer, Occitan/Spanish cambiar, Catalan canviar, Italian cambiare; akin to Breton kemm ‘exchange’, Old Irish cimb ‘ransom’.
Derivatives: cambio ‘exchange’, cambiador ‘exchanger’.
  • camba[2] [f] ‘wheel rim’ from proto-Celtic *kambo-,[4][5][42] cognate of Old Irish camm ‘crooked, bent, curved’. Cognate of Occitan cambeta ‘part of plough’, Limousin Occitan chambija (< *cambica) ‘part of plough’
Derivatives: cambito, cambada, camballa, cambeira ‘coil; crooked log for hanging fish’, cambela ‘type of plough’, cambota ‘beam’.
  • camiño[2][43] [m] ‘pathway’, alternative spelling caminho, from Vulgar Latin *cammīnus, from proto-Celtic *kanxsman-,[5][44] cognate of Italian cammino, French chemin, Spanish camino, Catalan camí, Occitan camin ; akin to Old Irish céimm, Cornish and Breton kamm ‘step’.
Derivatives: camiñar ‘to walk’.
  • camisa[2] [f] ‘shirt’ from Latin, from Gaulish camisia.[45] cognate of Spanish/Occitan camisa, Italian camicia, French chainse
  • cando [m] ‘dry stick’, from medieval candano, from Celtic *kando- ‘bright, white’, cognate of Welsh cann ‘bright, light’.[46]
  • canga[2][47] [f] ‘collar, yoke’, from Celtic *kambika.[48]
  • canto [m] ‘rim, corner’, from proto-Celtic *kanto-,[4] akin to Old Irish cét ’round stone pillar, Welsh cant ‘tire rim’, Breton kant ‘disk’; cognate of Old French chant, Occitan cant, Spanish canto.
Derivatives: recanto ‘corner’, cantón ‘edge of a field’, acantoar ‘to hide, to isolate’, cantil ‘cliff’

A Galician traditional carro. The wheels are built with cambas or curved pieces; the laterals of the cart are called chedas.

  • carro [m] ‘cart, wagon’, from Vulgar Latin carrum, from proto-Celtic *karro-,[4][5][49] cognate of Rumanian car, Italian carro, French char, Provençal car, Spanish carro; akin to Irish carr, Welsh car, Breton karr.
Derivatives: carreira ‘road’, carregar ‘to load’.
  • caxigo [m] ‘oak; Portuguese oak‘, from *cassīcos, from Celtic *cassos ‘curly, twisted’,[50] akin to Irish cas ‘twist, turn, spin’, Old Welsh cascord ‘to twist’; cognate of Asturian caxigu, Aragonese caixico, Gascon casse, French chêne ‘oak’ (< *cassanos).
  • centolo [m] ‘European spider crab‘, akin to Gaulish personal name CINTULLOS ‘the first one’,[51] from PCl *kintu- ‘first’.
  • cervexa[2] [f] ‘beer’, alternative spelling cerveja, from Vulgar Latin *cerevisia, from Gaulish[52] Cognates: Old French cervoise, Provençal, Spanish cerveza; akin to Old Irish coirm, Welsh cwrw, Cornish and Breton korev.
  • cheda[2] [f] ‘lateral external board of a cart, where the crossbars are affixed’, from Medieval Latin cleta, from proto-Celtic *klētā,[4][5][53]cognate of Irish cloí (cloidhe) ‘fence’, clíath ‘palisade, hurdle’, Welsh clwyd ‘barrier, wattle, scaffolding, gate’, Cornish kloos ‘fence’, Breton kloued ‘barrier, fence’; cognate of French claie ‘rack, wattle fencing’, Occitan cleda, Catalan cleda ‘livestock pen’, Basque gereta.
  • choco [m] ‘cowbell; squid’, from proto-Celtic *klokko-,[4][5][54] akin to Old Irish clocc, Welsh cloch, Breton kloc’h; cognate of Asturian llueca and llócara ‘cowbell’, French cloche ‘bell’, German Glock.
Derivatives: chocar ‘to bang, to shock’, chocallo ‘cowbell’.
  • colmea[2] [m] ‘beehive’, from a Celtic form *kolmēnā ‘made of straw’[55] (cf. Spanish colmena ‘beehive’), from *kolmos ‘straw’, which gave Leonese cuelmo; cf. Welsh calaf “reed, stalk”, Cornish kala and kalaven “straw”, Breton kolo “stalk”).
  • cómaro, comareiro [m] ‘limits of a patch or field, usually left intentionally unploughed’, from proto-Celtic *kom-ɸare-(yo)-,[5] cognate of Old Irish comair ‘in front of’, Welsh cyfair ‘direction, place, spot, acre’. Or either to *kom-boros ‘brought together’.[56]
Derivatives: acomarar ‘to mark out a field (literally to dote with cómaros)’.
  • comba [f] ‘valley, inflexion’, from proto-Celtic *kumbā,[4][5][57] cognate of North Italian comba, French combe, Occitan comba; akin to Irish com, Welsh cwm ‘hollow (land form)’, Cornish komm ‘small valley, dingle’, Breton komm ‘small valley, deep water’.
  • combarro [m], combarrizo [m] ‘shed, shelter’,[58] from proto-Celtic *kom-ber-o- ‘bring together’.[5] Cognate of Middle French combres ‘palisade in a river, for fishing’.
  • combo [m] (adj.) ‘curved, bent’, from Celtic *kumbo-,[4][5][59] cognate of Provençal comb, Spanish combo.
Derivatives: combar ‘to bend’.
  • comboa [f] ‘corral used for capturing fish trapped in low tide’, from Old Galician combona, from Celtic *combā ‘valley’ or *cambos ‘bent’.[59]
  • croio [m] ‘rolling stone’, croia [f] ‘pip’, from old-galician crougia > *cruia ‘stone’, Proto-Celtic *krowka (EDPC: 226, Oir. crùach ‘hill’. W. crug ‘cairn, hillock’.[60] Derivatives: croio (adj.) ‘ugly, rude’; croído, croieira ‘stony place/beach’.
  • crouca [f] ‘head; withers (ox)’, from Celtic croucā,[4][5][61] cognate of Provençal crauc ‘heap’, Occitan cruca ‘cape (land form)’; akin to Irish cruach ‘pile, haystack’, Welsh crug ‘hillock, barrow, heap’, Cornish and Breton krug ‘mound, barrow’.
Derivatives: crocar ‘swell, bulge, bruise’, croque ‘bump’.
  • curro [m] ‘corral, pen; corner’, from Celtic *korro-,[5] akin to Middle Irish cor ‘circle, turn’, corrán ‘sickle’, Welsh cor ‘enclosure’, Cornish kor ‘turn, veering’; cognate of Spanish corro, corral.
Derivatives: curruncho, currucho, currullo ‘corner, end’, currusco ‘protruding part (in bread)’, curral ‘corral, pen’.

D – Z

  • dorna [f] ‘a type of boat; trough, measurement (volume)’,[62] from proto-Celtic *durno- ‘fist’.,[63] Irish dorn fish, Welsh dwrn, Cornish and Breton dorn ‘hand’; Akin to Old French, Occitan dorn, ‘a handful’.[64] Nevertheless, the Asturian duerna ‘bowl’ demand a form **dorno-.
  • embaixada [f] ’embassy’, from Provençal ambaissada, from ambaissa ‘service, duty’, from proto-Celtic *ambactos ‘servant’,[65] akin to Welsh amaeth ‘farm’, Cornish ammeth ‘farming’, Old Breton ambaith, modern Breton amaezh.
  • engo, irgo [m] ‘danewort‘, from *édgo, from a Low Latin EDUCUS, from Gaulish odocos,[66] idem.[67] Cognate of Spanish yezgo, Asturian yeldu, Provençal olègue, idem.
  • gabela [f] ‘handful, faggot’, alternative spelling gavela, from proto-Celtic *gabaglā-,[68][69][70] cognate of French javelle, Provençal gavela, Spanish gavilla; akin to Old Cornish gavael ‘catch, capture’, Irish gabháil ‘get, take, grab, capture’, gabhal ‘fork’.
  • galga [f] ‘plain stone’, from *gallikā, to Proto-Celtic *gallos ‘stone’,[4] akin to Irish gall, French galet ‘gravel’ gallete ‘plain cake’, Spanish galga.
Derivatives: galgar ‘carving a stone to make it plain and regular’.
  • gorar[2] ‘to hatch, to brood (an egg, or a sickness)’, from proto-Celtic *gʷhor-,[71][72] akin to Irish gor ‘sit on eggs, brood (eggs)’ Welsh/Cornish gori ‘to brood, sit (on eggs)’, Breton goriñ.
Derivatives: goro ‘warmed infertile egg’.
  • gubia [f] ‘gouge’, from Celtic *gulbia, from *gulb- ‘beak’,[73][74] cognate of Portuguese goiva, Spanish gubia, French gouge, Italian gubba; akin to Old Irish gulba ‘sting’, Irish gealbhán ‘sparrow’, Welsh gylyf ‘sickle’, gylf ‘beak’.
  • lándoa [f] ‘uncultivated plot’, from *landula, Romance derivative of proto-Celtic *landā,[4][5][75] cognate of Old Irish lann ‘land, plot’, Welsh lann ‘church-yard’, Breton lann ‘heath’, French lande ‘sandy moor, heath’, Provençal, Catalan landa.
  • laxe[2][76] [f] ‘stone slab’, alternative spelling lage, from the medieval form lagena, from proto-Celtic *ɸlāgenā,[77] cognate of Old Irish lágan, láigean, Welsh llain ‘broad spearhead, blade’; akin to Irish láighe ‘mattock, spade’.
  • legua or légua[78] [f] ‘league’, to Proto-Celtic *leukā, cognate of French lieue, Spanish legua; akin to Old Irish líe (genitive líag) ‘stone’, Irish lia

Walled leiras, in Muxía, Galicia.

  • leira [f] ‘plot, delimited and levelled field’, from the medieval form laria, from proto-Celtic *ɸlār-yo-,[5][79] akin to Old Irish làr ‘ground, floor’, Cornish and Breton leur ‘ground’, Welsh llawr ‘floor’.
Derivatives: leiro ‘small, ou unleveled, plot’, leirar ‘land working’, leiroto, leiruca ‘small plot’.
  • Old Galician ler [m] ‘sea, seashore’, from proto-Celtic *liros,[4][5] cognate of Old Irish ler, Irish lear, Welsh llyr ‘sea’.
  • lercha[80] [f] ‘rod, stick (used for hanging fish)’, from proto-Celtic *wliskā[81] ‘stick’, cognate of Old Irish flesc.
  • lousa[2] [f] ‘flagstone’, from Proto-Celtic *laws-,[82] cognate of Provençal lausa, Spanish losa, French losenge ‘diamond’.
Derivatives: enlousar ‘to cover with flagstones’, lousado ‘roof’.
  • marulo [m] ‘big, fat kid’, from *mārullu,[83] diminutive of Proto-Celtic *māros ‘large, great, big’, akin to Irish mór, Welsh mawr, Cornish and Breton meur.
  • meniño [m] ‘kid, child, baby’, alternative spelling meninho, from medieval mennino, from proto-Celtic *menno-,[5] akin to Old Irish menn ‘kid (goat)’, Irish meannán, Welsh myn, Cornish mynn, Breton menn.
Derivatives: meniñez ‘childhood’.


A miñoca.

  • miñoca [f] ‘earthworm’, alternative spelling minhoca, dialectal mioca, miroca, from medieval *milocca, from proto-Celtic *mîlo-,[4][5] akin to Asturian milu, merucu ‘earthworm’, Irish míol ‘worm, maggot’, Welsh, Cornish and Breton mil ‘animal’.
  • mostea [f] ‘bundle of straw’, from proto-Celtic *bostā- ‘hand, palm, fist’.,[84] Irish bos, bas ‘palm of hand’.
  • olga [f] ‘patch, plot’, from proto-Celtic *ɸolkā,[85][86][87] cognate of French ouche, Provençal olca. Nevertheless, *ɸolkā should become **ouca.
  • osca [f] ‘notch’, from Celtic *oska ‘idem’, cognate of Asturian güezca, French osche, Welsh osg ‘idem’.[88]
  • peza [f] ‘piece’, alternative spelling peça, from Vulgar Latin *pettia, from Gaulish petsi, from proto-Celtic *kʷezdi,[5][89][90] cognate of Italian pezza, French pièce, Spanish pieza; akin to Old Irish cuit (Irish cuid) ‘piece, share, part’, Welsh peth ‘thing’, Breton pezh.
Derivatives: empezar ‘to begin’.
  • rego [m], rega [f] ‘furrow, ditch’, from proto-Celtic *ɸrikā,[91][92][93] akin to Welsh rhych, Breton reg, Scottish/Irish riach ‘trace left from something’; cognate of French raie, Occitan, Catalan rega, Basque erreka, Italian riga ‘wrinkle’.
Derivatives: derregar ‘to mark out a field’, regato ‘stream, gully, glen’.
  • reo [m] ‘Salmo trutta trutta’, from a Celtic form rhedo (Ausonius).[94]
  • rodaballo[2] [m] ‘turbot‘, alternative spelling rodavalho, from a Celtic composite form *roto-ball-jo-,[95] meaning ’round-extremity’, akin to Irish roth ‘wheel’, Welsh rhod, Breton rod, and Irish ball ‘limb, organ’.
  • saboga, samborca [f] ‘allis shad‘, akin to Gaulish samauca, idem, from Celtic *samākā ‘summery’.[96]
  • saio [97] [m] ‘coat’ and saia [f] ‘skirt’, from the medieval form sagia, from an ancient Celtic form from which also Latin sagum ‘robe’.[98]
  • seara, senra [f] ‘sown field recently broken up, but which is left fallow’, from a medieval form senara, a Celtic compound of *seni- ‘apart, separated’ (cf. Old Irish sain ‘alone’, Welsh han ‘other’) and *aro- ‘ploughed field’.[99] (cf. Welsh âr, Irish ár ‘ploughed field’).
  • tasca [f] and tascón [m], ‘swingle’, related to Galatian taskós ‘peg, stake’.[100]
  • tol and tola[101] [m / f] ‘irrigation channel’, to Proto-Celtic *tullo- ‘pierced, perforated’,[28] akin to Irish toll ‘hollow, cave, hole’, Welsh twll ‘hole’, Cornish toll ‘hole’, Breton toull ‘hole’; cognate of Spanish tollo ‘hole’, Catalan toll ‘pool in a river’, Old French tolon ‘hill, upland’.
  • tona [f] ‘skin, bark, scum of milk’, from proto-Celtic *tondā,[5][102][103] cognate of Old Irish tonn, Welsh tonn.
Derivatives: toneira ‘pot for obtaining butter from the milk’.

Toxos and breixos, near O Grove

  • toxo [m], alternative spelling tojo, ‘gorse, furze (Ulex europaeus)’, from Celtic *togi-,[104] akin to Spanish/Gascon toja, French dialectal tuie.
Derivatives: fura-toxos ‘marten’; toxa ‘ulex gallii’; toxedo, toxa, toxeira ‘place with toxos’.
  • trosma[105] [m] ‘awkward, dimwitted’, from proto-Celtic *trudsmo- or *truksmo- ‘heavy’,[106] akin to Old Irish tromm, Welsh trwm.
  • trado, trade [m] ‘auger’, from proto-Celtic *taratro-,[4][5][107] cognate of Irish tarathar, Welsh taradr, Breton tarar, Occitan taraire, Catalan taradre, Spanish taladro, French tarière, Romansch tarader.
Derivatives: tradar ‘to drill’.
  • tranca [f], tranco [m] ‘beam, pole’, from proto-Celtic *tarankā,[108][109] cognate of Spanish tranca ‘club, cudgel’, French taranche ‘screw bar, ratchet (wine press)’, Provençal tarenco; akin to OIr tairinge ‘iron nail, tine’, Ir tairne ‘metal nail, Sc tairnge ‘nail’.
Derivatives: taranzón ‘pillar inside the potter’s oven’ < *tarankyon-, tarangallo ‘Wood nail, pin’, trancar ‘to bar a door’.

Galician traditional trobos or colmeas (beehives). The closer one is similar to reconstructed Iron Age huts.

  • trebo, trobo [m] ‘beehive’, from the medieval form trebano, proto-Celtic *trebno-,[5] akin to Old Irish treb ‘farm’, Cornish tre ‘home; town’, Welsh tref ‘town’; akin to Asturian truébanu ‘beehive’, Provençal trevar ‘to dwell, live (at)’.
  • trogo [m] ‘sadness, anxiety, pity’, from proto-Celtic *trougos,[4][5] akin to Old Irish tróg, Irish trogha, Welsh tru ‘wretched’, Breton tru ‘miserable’; cognate of Portuguese truhão, Spanish truhan ‘baffoon, jester’, French truand ‘beggar’.
  • trollo [m] ‘semicircular rake to move the oven’s hot coals’. bret. troellen, cornish trolh, Welsh troel, ‘idem’.[110]
  • turro [m] ‘boulder, heap’, from a probably Celtic etymon *tūrra ‘heap of earth’, cognate of Welsh twrr ‘heap’.[111]
  • vasalo [m] ‘vassal’, alternative spelling vassalo, from Vulgar Latin vassalus, from proto-Celtic *wasto-,[5][112] cognate of French vassal, Spanish vasallo, Middle Irish foss ‘servant’, Welsh gwas ‘servant; lad’, Breton gwaz.
  • verea [f] ‘main road’, from the medieval form vereda, from Celtic *uɸo-rēdo-,[113][114] cognate of Spanish vereda ‘pathway’; akin to Welsh gorwydd ‘steed’, Vulgar Latin veredus ‘horse’, French palefroi ‘steed’ (< *para-veredus).



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