basque & the dogon connection

Has the origin of Basque language finally been discovered?

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According to an article published in a Basque newspaper on Thursday, linguist Jaime Martín thinks so. After twelve years of research, he has concluded that Basque comes from Dogon, a language spoken in Mali. He has found words in Basque made up of two terms in Dogon, such as ‘senide’ (brother), which is ‘sani de” in the African language. However, his findings have already foundopposition. During an interview with Faktoria’s radio program in Euskadi Irratia, Euskaltzaindia’s Secretary Xabier Kintana criticized Martín “lack of methodology” and said “he couldn’t make head or tails” of the findings .

A linguistic study carried out by professor Jaime Martín states that Basque comes from Dogon, a language spoken in Mali. He compared 2,274 words between both languages and found similarities in 70% of them.

Mali residentsMartín, a Romanic Philology major and Language and Literature tenured professor for forty years at the Cervantes Institute in Madrid, devoted twelve years to comparing Basque and Dogon, linguistic structure as well as vocabulary.

His findings, summarized in the study “An enigma untangled: the origin of Basque”, is that the Basque language originated from Dogon – nowadays spoken by some 300,000 people in the sub-Saharan country located between Algeria and Mauritania.

According to him, his “affection and sympathy for Basque people dates back a long time”. “As a philologist, I was curious about Basque”, he said.

A few years ago, he read a thesis about Dogon by French author Geneviève Calame-Griaule, daughter  of Marcel Griaule, the most renowned expert on this nation. It was then that he noticed “from the very first words” that there were “similitudes between both languages in form and meaning.”

He decided to research applying scientific criteria, because the resemblance “couldn’t be coincidence”. For that, he compared the linguistic structure and vocabulary.

On linguistic structures, Dogon and Basque concur in sentence placement order, with the subject at the beginning, the verb at the end – which is the biggest difference from Romance languages – and the direct object in the middle. Also, demonstratives (this, that) go after the verb, as opposed to Latin and Spanish, where it goes before. “I was surprised”, he confesses. They differ in that Basque maintains declinations while Dogon does not have them.

As far as vocabulary goes, he compared 2,274 from both languages and found 1,633 similar pair, which represents 70% of the total.

According to the author, comparative linguistics from a %50 of similarity one can talk about a relationship between two languages.

Similarities

Ten examples of almost identical words: bede/bide (path in Dogon and Basque, respectively); soro/soro (agricultural land); beri/bero (hot); gara/garai (high); bana/banandu (to separate); gogoro/gogortu (to hold on); kwiye/kuia (pumpkin); pipilu/pipil (bud); togi/toki (place); kose/gose (hunger).

He also found Basque words made up of two Dogon terms, such as “senide” (brother), which is “sani de” in Dogon. Furthermore, he noticed that most of the words were older in Dogon that in Basque. All that has taken him to the conclusion that the Basque language originates from Dogon.

According to his theory, desertification of sub-Saharan Africa forced the people that lived there to emigrate to the Iberian Peninsula and the mediterranean basin, and thus the expansion of the terms.

Relationship with Africa

Therefore, according to this professor, the Basque language, which has been the subject of multiple theories about his origin, none of them conclusive, would have an African origin.

He is not the first comparing Basque with other languages; as Martin points out, Koldo Mitxelena – the most famous Basque linguist – denied the correlation between Basque with African languages.

Another well-known linguist, Antonio Tovar, carried out a comparative study among Basque, Berber, Copto and Egyptian and three other caucasian languages.

Tovar only found up to 7% of similitude with Berber, very little, but pointed out how similar Basque sentence structure was to other languages.

Jaime Martín contacted the Basque language awareness service at the University of the Basque Country and Auñamendi publishing house to present his work, but was unsuccessful. “It hurts me to say they didn’t get back to me”.

Now, he plans to get in touch with Euskaltzaindia or interested philologists because Martín claims he tried to carry out a rigorous linguistic investigation, with no preconceptions, and that he “has no problem” corroborating it.

The Dogon Tribe originates from Africa, yet many of the legends from their heritage were used by the Egyptians and subsequent dynasties. The Dogon knew of constellations that we didn’t ‘discover’ until many years later.

How did they know about the Sirius star system?

The Mayan culture received their information from Kulkulkan and the Aztecs received theirs from Quetzalcoatl, who was also known as Thoth. Did the Dogon receive their knowledge through shamanistic spiritual means or perhaps through extraterrestrial intervention? You decide for yourself!

Po Tolo, Sigi Tolo, and Emma Ya ToloDogon Cosmology, Sirius, and Hydrogen Astrophysics

There are some profound astrophysical truths contained in this summary of Dogon star science, a few of which have already been alluded to. Some of the most profound is the nature of the Sirius star system and its importance in establishing and maintaining celestial order for our solar system.

The Dogon actually say that there are three major stars in the Sirius system:

Po Tolo, Sigi Tolo, and Emma Ya Tolo.

Po Tolo (Sirius B) is the oldest of stars, and its name means ‘deep beginning’. It is a twin of the Po – the Black hole at the center of the galaxy. The Dogon consider Po Tolo the reservoir and source of all things in this realm, and the germ of creation for our Solar System. They say it is the smallest, yet heaviest of celestial objects, and that it ejects it essence out into creation by its fast spinning. The particles of its essence are ‘infinitely small’.

A breakdown of the key cosmological and astrophysical truths expressed in Dogon High Science is as follows:

· Amma is the Dogon name for Amen. Amma is described as the intelligent consciousness behind all of creation and the awareness within all beings. Amma is ‘He Who Rests Upon Nothing’.

Po Tolo, Sigi Tolo, and Emma Ya Tolo· The Po is the Black Hole that is the core of our galaxy. The Po is ‘The Egg of the World’, the first principle of the seed. Po means seeds in the Dogon language. The Dogon describe the Po as the smallest thing in the world, alluding to the fact that the matter of a Black Hole is the densest, most compact form of matter in creation. They say that it is ‘invisible, at the center’. It spins and scatters all particles of matter in a sonorous and luminous motion, yet remains inaudible and invisible. The Dogon say that Amma placed his word in the Po, thus making it the ‘image of the creator’ and ‘the womb of Amma’.

· The Clavicles of Amma refer to the spiral nebula arms that define the shape of the galaxy. The clavicle is the 1st bone to appear in the skeletal system of developing embryos. It grows in a sickle-type arch very similar to the shape of the arms of our spiral galaxy.

· Po Tolo is ‘The Star of the Deep Beginning’. This is what the Dogon call the Black dwarf Star that astronomers call Sirius B. Po Tolo is the 1st of all stars; it was born after the Po (galactic core) had finished its task. Po Tolo is seen as a double of the Po, meaning that Black stars such as Sirius B act very similar to Black Holes; it appears as if it has the same effect on space and time as Blacks Holes, only on a much lesser scale of manifestation. Po Tolo is the ‘image of the womb of Amma’ and is seen as a reservoir of source of renewing life force for this realm of creation (Po Tolo is the 2nd closest star system to our solar system; being only eight light years away). Po Tolo is also made of the smallest and heaviest of things, which the Dogon describe as a metal called Sagala. One pebble of Sagala would weigh several tons. Because Po Tolo is so massive it shapes and moulds the structure of space and time in our realm.

Basque and Sumerian

Sumerian ada “father”                                    Basque aita “father”

Sumerian agar “irrigated field, common land”   Basque agirre (land-use term)
Sumerian garash “straw”                                Basque garo “fern”, gari “wheat”
Sumerian gig/ge/ke “night”                              Basque gau “night”
Sumerian gur “wheels”                                   Basque gur-di “cart”, gur-pil “wheel”
Sumerian guru “high, deep”                            Basque garai “high”
Sumerian guru “to encircle, besiege”               Basque in-guru “surrounding”
Sumerian gurun/gurin/girin/girim “fruit, berry, flower”  Basque garau(n) “fruit, grain, seed”, gara-tu “to sprout”
Sumerian henbur “red shoots, stalks”              Basque (z)enbor “tree trunk”
Sumerian igi “eye”, igisi “to see”                     Basque b-egi “eye”, ikusi “to see”
Sumerian milla “mountain”                              Basque mal-da “slope”
Sumerian shur/sur “to flow, drip”                      Basque i-suri “flow, pour”
Sumerian tiri-gal (an unidentified bird)                Basque txori “bird”
Sumerian ziz “moth”                                        Basque sits “moth”
Now let’s look at a few from he second category:-
Sumerian ahe “arm”                                          Basque ukai “forearm”, uka-bil“wrist, etc
Sumerian ala “exclamation of joy, exuberance”    Basque alai “happy, merry”
Sumerian abar “cane, reed ”                               Basque abar “branch”
Sumerian asa/as/az “bear”                                 Basque (h)artz “bear”
Sumerian asa/as/az “myrtle”                              Basque aza “cabbage”
Sumerian ashki “bullrush”       Basque ezki “linden tree”, m-uski-l “bud”, ezkai“thyme”, etc.
Sumerian bila “son, heir”                                    Basque bilo-ba “grandson”
Sumerian bir “locust, sparrow”                            Basque bili “gosling”, biri-garro“thrush”
Sumerian bir “to be hot”                                     Basque bero “hot”
Sumerian eg/ek/ig “embankment”                        Basque egi “ridge”
Sumerian en “dignatory, lord”                              Basque jaun “lord”
Sumerian erin/eren “cedar”                                  Basque aran “plum”
Sumerian esh “shrine”                                         Basque etxe “house”
Sumerian esig “wall”                                            Basque (h)esi “fence”
Sumerian gaz “powder”                                        Basque gatz “salt”
Sumerian giri/gir “lighting flash”                            Basque gar “flame”
Sumerian gis/ges “man, penis”                             Basque giz-on “man”
Sumerian gis/ges “wooden implement, sceptre”     Basque gezi “arrow, dart”
Sumerian gud “war”                                             Basque gudu “war”
Sumerian gun/gu “land, region, district”                 Basque gune “place”
Sumerian gur “copper sickle”                                Basque aiz-kor-a “axe”
Sumerian igira “heron”                                         Basque ugari “heron”
Sumerian isimu/isim “offspring/descendant”          Basque seme “son”
Sumerian kala/gala “store-pit, cellar”                      Basque gela “room”
Sumerian kar “to take away”                                 Basque e-karr-i “to bring”
Sumerian kas “fast runner”                                    Basque ihes/iges “flight, escape”
Sumerian kim/gim “willow tree”                              Basque kima/gima “shoot, sprout, bud”
Sumerian kus(-u) “to be tired”, worried”                   Basque kexu “worried”
Sumerian lamma/lama “female spirit of good fortune”   Basque lami-a/lami-ni “elf-like mythical being”
Sumerian limmu/lim “four”                                        Basque lau(r) “four”
Sumerian lu “man” (classifier)                                   Basque loi “body”
Sumerian luhum/luhummu “mud”                               Basque lo(h)i/lokatz “mud”
Sumerian mamu “dream”                                           Basque mamu “ghost”
Sumerian mar/mur “worm”                                          Basque zo-morr-o “insect”
Sumerian masgi “night-time vision, dream, omen”        Basque a-mets “dream”
Sumerian men “crown, tiara”                                       Basque men “power”
Sumerian mer/mir “storm, angry, furious”                     Basque a-morr-o “rage”
Sumerian mur “ridge”                                                 Basque muru “small hill”
Sumerian mush “snake, reptile”                                  Basque mus-ker “lizard”
Sumerian mush-dagur “gecko, lizard”                        Basque mus-ker “lizard” +zakur “dog”
Sumerian mushen “bird” (classifier)                              Basque mozo-lo “owl”
Sumerian nemur “glowing coals, fire”                            Basque nabar “brightly coloured”
Sumerian sab “middle, stem”                                       Basque sab-el “stomach”
Sumerian sadur “low-lying end of farmer’s field”              Basque zador “hollow”
Sumerian shagan/shakan “large jar for oil”              Basque aska “manger” (with metathesis)
Sumerian sahar “earth, silt”                                           Basque zakar “slag”
Sumerian sahir “net, bundle”                                          Basque sare “net”
Sumerian sakar (unidentified plant)                                Basque sagar “apple”
Sumerian shal/sal “narrow, thin”                                    Basque a-zal “shallow”
Sumerian shar/sar “to enter”                                          Basque sar-tu “to enter”
Sumerian sedur “caterpillar cocoon”                            Basque zeden “grub, mite, caterpillar”
Sumerian shes/ses “myrrh”                                            Basque sasi “brambles”
Sumerian sisa “straight”                                                Basque zuzen “straight”
Sumerian su “to stand, set up”                                        Basque zut “upright”
Sumerian sug (unidentified small animal)                          Basque sagu “mouse”
Sumerian suhush “roots, support, foundation”                    Basque zuzter “roots”
Sumerian suku “food portion”                                            Basque zuku “soup”
Sumerian sukur “spear, lance”                                           Basque sakil “penis”
Sumerian susu “basket”                                                    Basque sas-ki“basket”
Sumerian ten/te-en “cold, coldness”                                    Basque zen “dead”
Sumerian tul “public fountain, well, cistern”                         Basque zulo “hole” (Iberian *tulo)
Sumerian ud “sun, light, day”                                            Basque uda “summer”
Sumerian ugu “to give birth”                                               Basque ugari“abundant”
Sumerian un “people”                                                        Basque en-da “race”
Sumerian ur “dog”                                                             Basque or(a) “dog”
Sumerian ur “to flood”                                                        Basque ur “water”
Sumerian urin “eagle”                                                        Basque arrano “eagle”
Sumerian uru/iri “city, town, village, district                 Basque (h)erri, iri, uri, ili“town, village, people, country”
Sumerian us “domestic duck or goose”                            Basque uso “dove”
Sumerian us “foundation”                                   Basque eutsi “to maintain, conserve, keep”
Sumerian usar/usur “neighbour”                                          Basque auzo“neighbourhood”
Sumerian usuh “fir or spruce tree”                                    Basque izai “fir tree”
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