a people’s history of blood

although it is our dna & thousands of years &  thousands of genes that make up our genetic coding that make us who we are, our blood type is simply our marker of blood type. using blood type analysis we can discover certain aspects of our biological make up & trace our roots via bloodline mapping.  to me, this is very interesting & easier to do because i’m rh- . there are few of us, so it’s easier to pinpoint where my bloodline, dna, & genetics come from.


Distribution of Blood Types

Blood provides an ideal opportunity for the study of human variation without cultural prejudice.  It can be easily classified for many different genetically inherited blood typing systems.  Also significant is the fact that we rarely take blood types into consideration in selecting mates.  In addition, few people know their own type today and no one did prior to 1900.  As a result, differences in blood type frequencies around the world are most likely due to other factors than social discrimination.  Contemporary Japan is somewhat of an exception since there are popular Japanese stereotypes about people with different blood types.  This could affect choice in marriage partners for some Japanese.

All human populations share the same 29 known blood systems, although they differ in the frequencies of specific types.  Given the evolutionary closeness of apes and monkeys to our species, it is not surprising that some of them share a number of blood typing systems with us as well.

When we donate blood or have surgery, a small sample is usually taken in advance for at least ABO and Rh systems typing.  If you are O+, the O is your ABO type and the + is your Rh type.  It is possible to be A, B, AB, or O as well as Rh+ or Rh- .  You inherited your blood types from your parents and the environment in which you live cannot change them.

ABO Blood Type System

We have learned a good deal about how common each of the ABO blood types is around the world.  It is quite clear that the distribution patterns are complex.  Both clinal anddiscontinuous distributions exist, suggesting a complicated evolutionary history for humanity.  This can be seen with the global frequency patterns of the type B blood allele (shown in the map below).  Note that it is highest in Central Asia and lowest among the indigenous peoples of the Americas and Australia.  However, there are relatively high frequency pockets in Africa as well.  Overall in the world, B is the rarest ABO blood allele.  Only 16% of humanity have it.

Distribution of the B type blood allele in native populations of the world

The A blood allele is somewhat more common around the world than B.  About 21% of all people share the A allele. The highest frequencies of A are found in small, unrelated populations, especially the Blackfoot Indians of Montana (30-35%), the Australian Aborigines (many groups are 40-53%), and the Lapps, or Saami people, of Northern Scandinavia (50-90%).  The A allele apparently was absent among Central and South American Indians.

Distribution of the A type blood allele in native populations of the world

The O blood type (usually resulting from the absence of both A and B alleles) is very common around the world.  About 63% of humans share it.  Type O is particularly high in frequency among the indigenous populations of Central and South America, where it approaches 100%.   Western Europe  The lowest frequency of O is found in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where B is common.

Distribution of the O type blood in native populations of the world

Other Blood Type Systems

The majority of the people in the world have the Rh+ blood type.  However, it is more common in some regions.  Native Americans and Australian Aborigines were very likely 99-100% Rh+ before they began interbreeding with people from other parts of the world.  This does not imply that Native Americans and Australian Aborigines are historically closely related to each other.  Most Subsaharan African populations are around 97-99% Rh- .  East Asians are 93-99+% Rh+.  Europeans have the lowest frequency of this blood type for any continent.  They are 83-85% Rh+.  The lowest known frequency is found among the Basques of the Pyrenees Mountains between France and Spain.  They are only 65% Rh+.

The distribution patterns for the Diego blood system are even more striking.  Evidently, all Africans, Europeans, East Indians, Australian Aborigines, and Polynesians are Diego negative.  The only populations with Diego positive people may be Native Americans (2-46%) and East Asians (3-12%).  This nonrandom distribution pattern fits well with the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for Native Americans.


These patterns of ABO, Rh, and Diego blood type distributions are not similar to those for skin color or other so-called “racial” traits.  The implication is that the specific causes responsible for the distribution of human blood types have been different than those for other traits that have been commonly employed to categorize people into “races.”  Since it would be possible to divide up humanity into radically different groupings using blood typing instead of other genetically inherited traits such as skin color, we have more conclusive evidence that the commonly used typological model for understanding human variation is scientifically unsound.

The more we study the precise details of human variation, the more we understand how complex are the patterns.  They cannot be easily summarized or understood.  Yet, this hard-earned scientific knowledge is generally ignored in most countries because of more demanding social and political concerns.  As a result, discrimination based on presumed “racial” groups still continues.  It is important to keep in mind that this “racial” classification often has more to do with cultural and historical distinctions than it does with biology.  In a very real sense, “race” is a distinction that is created by culture not biology.

Blood Groups and the History of Peoples


Understanding The Blood Type Diet

The Blood Type Diet: Lifestyle

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About The GenoType Diet

in The Complete Blood Type Encyclopedia by Peter D’Adamo
There is a vast span of human existence of which little is known. Archeological ruins from the beginnings of civilization have been unearthed, and there have been occasional discoveries of a more prehistoric nature, but not much else. The impermanency of our physical existence is responsible for this void; our flesh and body fluids rapidly decompose after death. Unless preserved by extraordinary means, even skeletal remains eventually crumble and disappear. Early peoples did not practice ceremonial burial. Left to the elements, bodies soon completely decomposed: “Dust to dust” was not a mere poetic metaphor. It was a recorded observation of our transient natures.Only in the last century have scientists and anthropologists begun using biological markers such as the blood groups in the search for humanity’s imprint on our distant past. These studies have allowed a greater understanding of the movements and groupings of early peoples as they adapted to changing climates, mutating germs, and uncertain food supplies. Recent analyses, using sophisticated genetic measures, have produced the most accurate picture to date of human evolution.The variations, strengths and weaknesses of each blood group can be seen as part of humanity’s continual process of acclimating to different environmental challenges. Most of these challenges have involved the digestive and immune systems. It is no surprise, then, that many of the distinctions between the blood groups involve basic functions of our digestive and immune systems.Evolution is usually considered in the context of millions of years, which is the time frame needed to explain the many differences between animals or other species. Yet humanity’s own life span provides ample time for the myriad number of small day-to-day refinements, representing the constant struggle between inherited traits and environmental challenges.And, although evidence points to the fact that the individual genetic mutations that produced the ABO genes are quite ancient (1) this is trivial importance with regard to the actual demographics of the individual ABO blood groups in ancient populations. In genetics it is not the actual age of the gene that matters, it is its frequency or drift. This is computed by geneticists using a formula called the Hardy-Weinberg equation. Hardy-Weinberg posits that if the only evolutionary force acting on the population is random mating, the gene frequencies remain unchanged constant. In essence if you start off with a small number of a particular gene in a larger gene pool (such as the gene for blood group B in the gene pool for ABO blood type) and nothing other than random mating occurred, at the end of a period of time, you would still have a small number of B genes in the ABO gene pool.So something other than random mating is responsible for the present day differences in frequency between the ABO blood groups; why for example, are there such large populations of blood group O (40-45%) and A (35-40%) versus much lower rates of groups B (4-11%) and AB (0-2%)?First, it can be said that perhaps the mutation that produced the B gene was just not as common an occurrence as the mutation that produced the A gene. Yet, if they occurred at the same time, why would this be? Also, if the mutations are of such paramount importance, why is the distribution of the B gene so geographically limited to an area of high concentration stretching as a belt of territory from the Himalayas to the Urals?The answer lies not in the ancient nature of the mutations that produced the A and B genes, but rather in the discreet interactions that occurred between early man and his environment that were under the influence of his ABO blood group. These included the areas and climates he chose to inhabit, each with their unique populations of microbes and foods that he chose to catch or cultivate.As humans migrated and were forced to adapt their diets to local conditions, the new diets provoked changes in their digestive tracts and immune systems, necessary for them to first survive and later thrive in their new habitats. Different foods metabolized in a unique manner by each ABO blood group probably resulted in that blood group achieving a certain level of susceptibility (good or bad) to the endemic bacteria, viruses and parasites of the area. This probably more than any other factor was what has influenced the modern day distribution of our blood group. It is fascinating to note that virtually all the major infectious diseases that ran so rampant throughout our pre-antibiotic history have ABO blood group preferences of one group or another.(2)This results from the fact that many microbes possess ABO “blood types” of their own. It is perhaps useful to understand that the ABO blood group antigens are not unique to humans, although humans are the only species with all four variants. They are relatively simple sugars which arte abundantly found in nature. A bacteria which for example possessed an antigen on its surface that mimicked the blood group A antigen would have a much easier time infecting a person who was group A, since that bacteria would more likely be considered “self” to the immune system of a blood group A person. Also microbes may adhere to the tissues of one ABO group in preference to another, by possessing specialized adhesion molecules for that particular blood group.(3)The horrors of the Black Plague, which ran unchecked throughout Europe in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, is a perfect example. The Plague was a disease caused by bacterial infection and was almost certainly fatal to those who contracted it in the early years of its initial spread. By the fifteenth century, however, fatalities were rare, although many people continued to contract the infection. In just two generations, traits were developed in the survivors that protected them from fatal infections. Since these traits were necessary to survival, they were then passed on and retained as a form of genetic memory.The Black Plague is especially interesting from a perspective of the ABO blood groups, since Yersinia is a bacteria with a preference for individuals of specific ABO group, in this case, group O. (4,5)The effects of ABO blood group on survival against most forms of epidemic illness is so distinct that a modern day map of the ABO blood group distribution in Europe closely parallels the locations of major epidemics, with higher densities of blood group A and lower frequencies of blood group O in areas historically known to have had long histories of repeated pandemics.On the other hand, in pre-urbanization days the survival advantage would have laid with blood group O as they are known to be more resistant to the flukes and worms that routinely parasitized these early humans, probably because they are the only blood group with antibodies against two other antigens, A and B.These changes are reflected in the local success or failure of each of the blood groups, which appear to have each had a moment of pre-eminence at a critical juncture in our history. The ascent of humans to the top of the food chain (the early advantage of blood group O), the change from hunter-gathering to a highly concentrated, urban environment and agriculturally-based diet (the ascent of blood group A), and the mingling and migration of the races from the African homeland to Europe and Asia ( the opportunity for blood groups B and AB).The Ancestral FoundationFrom a purely scientific point of view, chemical analysis of the group O antigen reveals that from a structural perspective, it is the simplest blood group and it serves as the backbone for the synthesis of increasingly complex A, B and AB. These later blood groups evolved by adding other sugars onto the basic O sugar, much like a modern city might be built upon the foundations of an ancient one. Thus if the mutations that produced the A and B antigens are ancient, the gene for blood group O is infinitely older.Another dimension testifying to the great antiquity of group O comes from the science of physical anthropology and suggests that a greater part of humanity’s existence has been lived exclusively as group O.

New studies on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) support the theory that Homo sapiens emerged in Africa and only later infiltrated other regions. Unlike DNA, which is inherited from both parents and changes minutely with each generation, mtDNA is passed directly from mother to child. It is contained in eggs but not in sperm. Since only random mutations alter its sequence, it is a more accurate measure of the trajectory of human evolution. Extensive mtDNA studies demonstrate that humans evolved from a common ancestor. These studies also confirm the theory that the blood groups evolved as migratory mutations.

The extraordinarily high percentage of blood group O in “ancient” or otherwise isolated populations also testifies to its great age. (6) Even though the early migrations dispersed the gene for group O blood throughout the world, there are some extraordinary examples of “old” populations existing in our world today. Because of their geographic locations, these societies have remained isolated from interaction with other populations. If A, B and O had developed simultaneously, the isolated population groups would have had all of them. But these “old societies” are group O because genes for the later blood groups never had the opportunity to enter into their populations. They have remained unchanged.

The Basques are an ancient people whose origins are still a mystery. The Basque language, the only western European language not connected by Indo-European roots, appears to be related to several dialects found in small isolated populations in the valleys of the Caucasus Mountains. Although they look much like their French and Spanish neighbors, Basques possess the lowest frequency of blood group B—originally having no group B at all—and the highest frequencies of blood group O in Europe. Cattle, abundant on the European plains, and fresh water fish seem to have been the staples of their early existence, as evidenced by the extraordinary renderings of the famous cave paintings found in the Basque country.

More than fifty percent of the Basque population is Rh negative, as opposed to sixteen percent for the rest of Europe. Like the gene for group O, the genetic mechanism for the Rh negative blood type is simpler, hence undoubtedly older, than the gene for Rh positive.

Native Americans are another example of the “old peoples” existing in our world today. It has often been asserted that all full-blooded American Indians are group O, and recent studies on largely intermingled Amerindian populations show a very high (sixty-seven to eighty percent) predominance of O, indicating that their migration from Asia to Alaska was probably much earlier than previously believed.(7,8) Their high rate of blood group O suggests that the Amerindians and Eskimos are directly descended from Cro-Magnon ancestors, probably Mongolians, who migrated around 15,000 B.C. to the Americas. In contrast to the Basques, however, the Asian Amerindians must have mingled extensively with other Asian populations, picking up along the way the gene for Rh positive blood.

As with the Basques, few Native Americans are group B, so they must have migrated to the Americas late enough to pick up the Rh positive gene, but too early to pick up the gene for B. (9) This migration probably took place across the land bridge that at one time connected Siberia to Alaska. As the last Ice Age ebbed and the lands warmed and glaciers receded, the rising water levels eliminated the land bridge between Asia and American, bottling up the Native Americans and a high-O enclave and preventing for another 10,000 years any communication between the continents. Forensic studies support this theory: in Chile no B or AB have been noted either in pre-Columbian or Colonial mummies. (19)

Another theory for the extremely high incidence of blood group O in Native Americans is that O individuals seem relatively resistant to syphilis and smallpox, major killers of Native Americans that were introduced into the Old World by Columbus. (22)

Agricultural advances in the Americas were late in coming, because the new American homeland was abundantly populated with game and fish, which discouraged agriculture. Even corn, which was the staple grain, didn’t appear to be domesticated until 4500 B.C., and common beans appear to be an even more recent addition, first being cultivated around 2200 B.C. So, like the Basques, meats and not grains were the primary staple of the Native American diet.

In England, Wales and Scotland there is a strong association between ABO blood group and geographical differences in the death rate (10) Studies of blood group distribution in the British Isles show a general increase of group O frequency from relatively low numbers in southern England to increasingly higher ones in northern England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. (11) This suggests that the Anglo-Saxons had relatively high A levels, and that O increased as the proportion of Celtic ancestry increased, although the origin of the high incidence of blood group O in the Irish may represent the remnants of Mesolithic peoples. (23) This is also the case with continental Europe, where the percentage of group O increases in northern Germans and Danes. It is also known that the Icelanders had high O frequencies, close to those frequencies found in the populations of Scotland and Ireland.

Among the Nomads of the Arabian Peninsula, and the Berbers of the Atlas Mountains, two old populations, the frequency of the blood group O gene is high. Africans, on average, have more O genes and less A genes than do Europeans. So it can be seen that the gene carried by people who are blood group O is ancient by evolutionary standards.

The Age of The Hunter-Gatherers

Our first human ancestors likely emerged in sub-Sahara Africa between 170,000 and 50,000 years ago. These ancestors probably ate a rather crude, omnivorous diet of plants, grubs, and the scavenged leftovers of other, more successful predatory animals. Since humans have neither the sharp teeth or claws of a true predator, one could speculate that these people were perhaps as much prey as predator. Yet within these early humans lay the greatest predatory tool yet devised: The human brain.

In a study reported in the journal Science, anthropologists said their tests of the carbon content of teeth of Australopithecus africanus indicate that these individuals ate large quantities of food rich in carbon 13 – like grasses and sedges – or animals that ate these plants, or both. The research indicated that the australopithecines, which walked upright but also climbed trees, were already venturing out of their usual forest habitat to forage in open grasslands. It also suggested that hominids were consuming high-protein animal foods before the development of stone tools for butchering. They noted that many theories of human origins invoke a switch to a meat-rich diet to explain the sudden expansion of brain size with the first Homo species. If they were eating meat, it probably came from small animals that could be caught without tools or the scavenged remains of meals left by large predators. (12)

Perhaps I am not alone in recognizing the paradoxical nature of a high meat diet being the driving factor behind the dramatic growth of the human brain, the result being the production of nutritionists who advise a vegetarian diet for virtually everyone.

Big game hunting by humans started in Africa about half a million years ago, although the full force of armed human bands may not have been felt much before 100,000 B.C Early human’s relationship to their environment changed dramatically with the appearance of our first direct ancestor, Cro-Magnon, around 40,000 B.C. Named for a site in France where remains were first identified and studied, Cro-Magnons developed the beginnings of communication and tool working, and were also superb hunters. Using simple signals and gestures, they began to hunt in organized packs, wielding bone or simple stone weapons. This major advance catapulted what had been one of the less successful primates all the way to the top of the food chain. As skillful and formidable hunters, Cro-Magnons soon had little to fear from any animal rival.

Cro-Magnons possessed such modern human features as a higher, vertical forehead, a reduced brow ridge, a smaller face and teeth, and a chin. Their skeletons indicate great muscularity, suggesting they were employed in much more strenuous activities than are most modern peoples.

By the time of the Cro-Magnons, hunting and the consumption of a mostly carnivorous diet had become a way of life. It was in the midst of this carnivorous frenzy that the digestive attributes of Blood Group O reached its full expression, with the highly efficient acid and pepsin production of the stomach geared for the digestion of meat. With no natural predators (other than themselves), and an assured supply of game, the population of wily, physically agile Cro-Magnon hunters must have flourished.

Once early humans had gained ascendancy, it took a surprisingly short time for them to deplete the numbers of major game animals. By 50,000 B.C., most large game herds were already extinct in Africa. The scarcity of a primary food source led to widespread migration in search of new and fertile hunting grounds. The feast had come to an end. It had been a fairly routine task to feed a small hunting group on the kill of a single enormous animal carcass for a week or more. Now, having to hunt and kill a sufficient number of small game, most of whom proved fast and elusive, was much more difficult. Hunger began to take its toll on the previously successful tribes of hunters. The young, old, and weak fell by the wayside, succumbing to disease and starvation. Bands of hunters began warring with each other for the limited food supply.

This depletion of the large game in Africa, coupled with climatic changes and possibly population pressures encouraged early humans to begin moving out of Africa. The more barren northern areas, previously covered with ice, had started to warm, while a shift in the trade winds began to parch and desiccate what had once been fertile land in the African Sahara.

All of these factors joined together into what was quite possibly the greatest series of migrations in human history. These migrations seeded the planet with a base population of blood group O, helping to make it the widespread and ubiquitous blood group it continues to be to this day.

The Wanderings

By 30,000 B.C., bands of Cro-Magnons were migrating eastwards and northwards in search of new hunting lands. By 20,000 B.C., migration into Europe and Asia was so significant that large game herds began disappearing from those areas as well. Other food sources had to be discovered, and the search was a desperate one. Under these pressures, our ancestors may have become omnivorous again, feeding on a broader menu of new plant and animal species. In particular, the food resources of the shore and the sea were systematically exploited for the first time.

Cro-Magnons were getting smarter and more creative, developing more sophisticated housing and clothing. These alterations allowed bands of hunters to search for new game herds in northern grasslands and forests. By l0,000 B.C., human hunting groups occupied all the main land masses of the earth, except for Antarctica. Hunting bands found their way to Australia between 40,000 and 30,000 years ago. Some 5,000 to 15,000 years later, other bands managed to cross the Bering Strait from Asia and entered the Americas. In these later, relatively more sophisticated hunting societies, the extermination of large game accelerated. Cro-Magnon hunting methods were becoming increasingly efficient, as evidenced by the vast number of animal bones piled up at some of the recently unearthed archeological sites. At Solutre, France for example, the remains of more than 10,000 horses have been found. At Dolni Vestonice in the Czech Republic, a large number of bones from extinct mammoths litter the site. Some archeologists estimate that from the time human migration to the Americas began about 15,000 years ago, it took less than one thousand years to exterminate most of the large game in North and South America. The reason that the Aztec civilization was so easily toppled by the Spanish Conquistadors was the sheer terror that the horse-mounted warriors brought to the relatively primitive Aztec foot soldiers. Horses were previously unknown to the Aztecs—in earlier migrations from north to central America, their ancestors had exterminated the wild horses of the American plains, slaughtering them for food. They had no idea that horses could be utilized to far greater purposes than as a food source.

The expansion of Cro-Magnon hunting bands across the earth has been called “a period of unalloyed success for humankind”. The effect of a carnivorous diet on human growth was profound. The movement of the early humans to more temperate climates stimulated genetic responses. They developed lighter skins, less massive bone structures, and straighter hair. The skeleton, especially in Caucasians, matures slowly, and their lighter skin is better protected than darker skin against frostbite. Lighter skin is also better able to metabolize vitamin D, vital to survival in a land of shorter days and longer nights.

The dominance of the Cro-Magnons eventually brought about their own downfall. They suffered greatly from their own success. Overpopulation soon led to the exhaustion of available hunting grounds. Before long, most of the large game herds in the populated regions were destroyed by overhunting. This led to increased competition for a limited food supply. Competition led to war, and war to further migration.

The Agricultural Dawning

The Neolithic Period, or “New Stone Age” followed the “Old Stone Age” or Paleolithic period of the Cro-Magnon hunters, beginning around 30,000 B.C. Agriculture and animal domestication are generally recognized as the hallmarks of its culture. The ability to cultivate grains and livestock allowed these early people to forgo the hand-to-mouth existence of their nomadic ancestors, and settle down in cities, allowing for substantial population concentrations. The British prehistorian V. Gordon Childe coined the term “Neolithic Revolution” to describe the change from a hunting and gathering society to one based on food production, and he considered it the greatest advance in human history after the marshaling of fire.

The Neolithic Period was also an important watershed in the distribution of the ABO blood groups. This new, relatively sedentary, agrarian lifestyle and the major change in diet resulted in a new mutation in the digestive tracts and immune systems of these early people. Many of them became carriers of group A blood. The blood group A variant allowed humans to tolerate and better assimilate grains and other agricultural products. Blood group A initially appeared in any significant numbers in the early Caucasian peoples, sometime between 25,000 and 15,000 B.C., somewhere in western Asia or the Middle East. The gene for group A was carried into western Europe and Asia during the movement of these Neolithic societies, especially a branch termed the Indo-Europeans, where it penetrated extensively into the pre-Neolithic Type O populations.

The Indo-Europeans appeared originally in South Central Russia, and between 3500 and 2000 B.C. spread southward into Southwestern Asia, especially to Iran and Afghanistan. At some point after this, they began to spread again, this time further westward, into Europe. Not only did their migration serve to transport the gene for group A to pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherers, but it also served as a major catalyst in stimulating the adoption of Neolithic developments, such as agriculture. Almost all modern Europeans share a common ancestry with the Indo-European peoples.

The invasion of the Neolithic Indo-Europeans was scattershot and incomplete. In some areas, pre-Neolithic societies were obliterated through warfare and intermingling, while leaving others, such as the Basques of Spain, relatively alone and intact.

The Neolithic Revolution was the original “diet revolution,” as it introduced new foods and lifestyle habits into the simpler immune systems and digestive tracts of the early hunter-gatherers, and produced the environmental stress necessary to spark the development of a new

blood group variation, A. As the digestive tract of this new blood group gradually lost its ability to digest the carnivorous diet of the hunter-gatherers, the simpler, pre-agricultural diet dependent largely on hunting and gathering disappeared.

The Emergence of The Collective

Settling into permanent communities presented new developmental challenges; the individualistic tendencies of the hunter-gatherer now gave way to a more structured society. Skill specialization can only evolve as part of a larger whole; the basket weaver is dependent on the farmer, the farmer on the toolmaker. One no longer thought of food only when hungry; fields needed to be sown and cultivated in anticipation of future reward.

The cultivation of wheat and barley, coupled with the domestication of food animals such as sheep, goats, pigs, chickens, and later cattle, first occurred between 9000 and 5000 B.C. in southwestern Asia, a fertile mixing ground in which all three major races co-mingled.

The new farming economies spread slowly from southeast Europe to the north and west. The permanent settlements that developed as a result of the new agrarian society gave rise to the early cities.

Neolithic sites in southeast Europe date from before 6000 B.C., and are located in areas with the most workable soils and temperate climate. Cattle, sheep, or pigs, in addition to wheat, barley, peas, beans, and flax, were raised. By 4000 B.C., a series of settlements were established on the lake shores of Switzerland, and agriculture was adapted to the Alpine environment, with emphasis on cattle, legumes, and fruit, in addition to wheat.

Cereal crops and cattle were introduced to western France by 4000 B.C., and were in use in southern Scandinavia, the British Isles, and in the northern European plains by about 3500 B.C., pushing the remaining hunter-gatherer peoples farther north into the wilderness, or influencing them to adopt the new, settled mode of life. 4000 B.C. marked the beginning of the Neolithic period in Britain and Ireland, and is denoted by an extensive clearing of the forests at that time for agriculture, burial rituals, and the building of “megalithic” structures, such as Stonehenge in England.

There is good evidence to support the link between the ascendancy of blood group A and the development of the urban society. As discussed, many areas of the world that have long histories of urbanization and frequent outbreaks of plague, cholera, and smallpox show a predominance of group A over group O. This statistic clearly proved that group A was more resistant to and able to survive the infections common to densely populated areas. One might well wonder how blood group O survived at all-much less how it has remained to this day the most ubiquitous blood group on the planet. One reason might be the sheer amount of group O in the gene pool; it is recessive in A and B and thus remains self-replicating.

Blood group A is found in the highest concentrations among western Europeans. Unlike blood groups B and O, there are many varieties of group A. The major grouping, A1, accounts for about ninety-five percent of all A blood. The largest subgroup, A2, is found principally in Northern Caucasians. A2 is found in very high concentration in Iceland and Scandinavia, particularly among the Lapps, ancient settlers of the area. They are almost unique in their high frequency of A, and have the highest frequency of A2, registering forty-two percent in one group. The A2 gene is almost entirely confined to Caucasian populations.

The European frequency of group A decreases as we head eastwards. Over much of Europe the frequency of the A gene is greater than twenty-five percent. It is also found in considerable numbers around the entire Mediterranean Sea, particularly in Corsica, Sardinia, Spain, Turkey, and the Balkans. It is clear that humankind most often laid down permanent settlements in those areas where conditions offered them the best chance of survival.

The Nomadic Mutation

The gene for blood group B first appeared in significant numbers somewhere around 10 to 15,000 B.C., the tail end of the Neolithic period, in the area of the Himalayan highlands now part of present day Pakistan and India. Like the environmental conditions which spawned the advent of group A, the development of blood group B was in large part a response to changes in the environment. But unlike A, which began to supplant group O as a response to new types of infections, then thrived as a result of the new dietary changes, group B appears to have been more of a response to climatic changes, followed by a different set of dietary adaptations. Life in the tropical flat savannahs of eastern Africa gave way to a harsher existence as the Cro-Magnon hunters migrated to the colder, drier, mountainous areas of the subcontinent and the barren endless plains of the central Asian steppes.

It is possible that blood group B may have been the only blood group with the capabilities to survive in such a harsh environment. There is some science behind this theory: For example, variability in the levels of the hormones testosterone, estradiol, and somatotropic hormones in mountaineers of the Pamirs and Kirghizes was examined in relation to their place of residence in terms of elevation above sea level. At high altitudes blood O group had had lower concentrations of estradiol and testosterone, blood group B the highest. (13)

Under times of famine, two biologic functions diminish: First is the ability to fend off infection. And the second is the ability to reproduce. Essentially omnivores, group B may have been the only blood group whose immune systems were capable of functioning with a diet described by one Roman historian as “soured milk and mare’s blood.” In addition to having the ability to survive pestilence, blood group B women may be more fertile than the A and O counterparts (14) and may begin to menstruate earlier. (15)

Higher concentrations of the group B gene exists in direct relationship with the demographics of the pre-existing caste system. Since the caste system was the direct result of consecutive layers of foreign conquest, it appears that the B gene may have been introduced into the Indian subcontinent via conquest. (16) In a study among fourteen Hindu caste groups, besides Christian and Muslim populations of West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India All the Hindu castes except Brahmin, Kshatriya and Reddy exhibited relatively higher frequency of group B over group A (24) In a study of ABO distribution along the Silk Route of Northwestern China a distinct increase of blood group B was seen, especially when those subjects of Mongolian extraction were compared to Caucasian. (25)

An almost continuous belt of mountainous terrain extends from the Urals in Russia to the Caucasus in Asia, and then onto the Pyrenees of southern France. This barrier split the

migrations of the blood groups into two basic routes; a northern stream and a southern one. The invaders taking the southern approach became the ancestors of the Mediterranean people and western Europeans, and carried with them the gene for blood group A. The Ural Mountains prevented a large migration westwards from Asia, although small numbers of Caucasians entered eastern Europe, carrying with them the gene for blood group B that they picked up by intermingling with the Asian Mongolians. This barrier served to divide blood groups into a western group, A; and an eastern group, B.

Blood group B Mongolians continued to travel northward, toward present day Siberia. They developed a different culture, dependent on herding, and emphasizing the use of cultured dairy products. These nomadic people were expert horsemen, and wandered extensively over the Siberian flat lands, the great Steppes. These nomads must have been compact, tightly knit, and genetically homogenous. A recent study using sophisticated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology determined the ABO groupings of on the dried remains of nine human mummies which had been discovered at Taklamakan desert in 1912. Of the nine, eight were group B. (17) At various times they penetrated large swaths of Eastern Europe, at one time reaching as far as the gates of Vienna, Austria. The Mongolians were certainly responsible for introducing the gene for blood group B into the eastern European populations.

Two basic blood group B population patterns emerged out of the Neolithic revolution in Asia: an agrarian, relatively sedentary population located in the south and east, and the wandering nomadic societies of the north and west. This schism stands as an important cultural remnant in Southern Asian cuisine -the use of dairy products remains practically nonexistent. To the Asian culture, dairy products are considered the food of the barbarian.

In the Middle-East it appears that tribes of Semitic group B nomads may have infiltrated into pre-existing Neolithic cultures, both passively and aggressively. Semitic peoples called the Hyksos were foreign rulers of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. Exactly who those foreign rulers were is not known, but it is assumed they were Asiatics. The Egyptian term for Hyksos merely means “rulers of foreign lands.” It was once thought that foreign rule in Egypt would have necessarily entailed a violent overthrow, but instead there is the appearance of a peaceful takeover. More likely, the numbers of these foreigners slowly increased in the Delta region until they became a powerful political force. Under the rule of the Hyksos, the continuity of Egyptian culture and ritual was preserved, indicating that these foreign kings had become fully Egyptianized. Persian suzerainty may have also added large amount of B gene to the upper-class Egyptian gene pool, since a third century BC Egyptian mummy, ‘Iset Iri Hetes’ was recently typed and found to be group B. (18) Interestingly, Africa in general (independent of any racial categorization) has a higher incidence of group B than Europe or the Middle East. Whether this is the result of intermingling or the original B gene pool is unknown, however it does imply that the links between ancient Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa are deeper and older than generally recognized.

The blood group characteristics of the various Jewish populations have long been of interest to anthropologists. As a general rule, regardless of their nationality or race, there is a trend towards higher than average rates of blood group B. The Ashkenazim of Eastern Europe and the Sephardim of the Middle East and Africa, the two major sects, share high rates of group B blood and bear no discernible differences. Babylonian Jews differ considerably from the present-day Arab population of Iraq, in that they have a high frequency overall of group A, and an even higher frequency of group B blood.

The Jews of the Tafilalet Oasis in Morocco, an ancient community, now dispersed, also had a high frequency of the gene for blood group B, around twenty nine percent of the total society.

The Karaites, who have an extraordinarily high rate of blood group B, are members of a Jewish sect founded in Babylonia in the eighth century A.D. A singular community of Karaites continues to exist in Lithuania, and they were known to have migrated as a body from the Crimea. The Karaites consider themselves Jews by religion only, not by race. This claim of racial separation was accepted by the Nazi authorities, who controlled Lithuania during the Second World War. Because of this, the Karaites were spared the horrors of the Holocaust. (6)

To modern day anthropologists, blood group B continues to this day to be an “Eastern” blood group. It is found in high numbers among Asians such as the Chinese, Indians, and Siberians. In Europe, blood group B is more frequently found in Hungarians, Russians, Poles, and other eastern Europeans. It is not found in large numbers among western Europeans. Among pre-Neolithic people, such as the Basques and Amerindians, group B is practically nonexistent.

Of all the ABO blood groups, B shows the most clearly defined geographic distribution. Stretching as a great belt across the Eurasian plains and down to the Indian subcontinent, blood group B is found in increased numbers from Japan, Mongolia, China and India, up to the Ural Mountains. From there westward, the percentages fall until a low is reached at the extreme western end of Europe.

Blood group B is a distinctly non-Indo-European blood type. In Europe, only two areas with a high rate of blood group B appear: one among the group of non-Indo-European peoples known as the Finno-Ugrics (such as the Hungarians and the Finns), the other among the central Slavic peoples (Czechs, Southern Poles, and Northern Serbs). The Viking invaders may have also had a relatively high percentage of B gene, since many of the towns of Britain and western Europe that are linked to the coast by internal lines of communication such as large rivers, have a disproportional amount of blood group B when compared to the surrounding territory.

The small numbers of blood group B in old and Western Europeans represents western migration by Asian nomadic peoples. This is most clearly seen in the easternmost Western Europeans, the Germans and Austrians, who have an unexpectedly high incidence of blood group B blood compared to their western neighbors. The highest frequency of blood group B in Germans occurs in the area around the upper and middle Elbe River, an important natural boundary between “civilization” and “barbarism” in ancient and medieval times.

Modern subcontinental Indians, a Caucasian people, have some of the highest frequencies of blood group B in the world. Interestingly, among the Asiatics, they and the Japanese are the only areas that show high frequencies of blood group A as well. The northern Chinese and Koreans have high rates of blood group B, and lower rates of blood group A.

Nowadays, blood group B accounts for about ten percent of the world’s population.

The Intermingling

Blood group AB is found in less than five percent of the population. It is certainly the most recent blood group. Unlike the other Abo blood groups, group AB resulted from the intermingling of group A Caucasian people and group B Mongolian people. Some of this may have been peaceful, some must have been part of the violent turmoil that marked the great “Migration of Peoples” at the end of the Ancient Period (300AD-800AD)

This time period was characterized by the collapse of the ancient civilizations, brought on by the influx of various wandering hordes of predominantly Eastern origin. The incidence of blood group B was probably very high in these Steppe dwellers, so the appearance of group AB in Europe is probably the result of the intermingling of these Eastern invaders with their European hosts. In Europe, the distribution of this blood group parallels group B, with a low incidence in Western Europeans. There is a very high incidence of AB blood in subcontinental Indians, again probably the result of migration, conquest, caste distinctions and intermingling .

Little evidence for the occurrence of group AB extends beyond 900 to 1,000 years ago, when a large western migration of Eastern peoples took place. Blood group AB is rarely found in European graves prior to 900 A.D. Studies of prehistoric grave exhumations in Hungary indicate a distinct lack of this blood group into the Langobard age (fifth to seventh century A.D.). This would seem to indicate that, up until that point in time, European populations of blood groups A and B did not come into common contact. If they did, they neither mingled nor intermarried.

Blood group AB may be a purely human invention. This blood group takes the concept of tolerance to the extreme, as it sees all things A-like or B-like as self, and manufactures no opposing blood group antibodies. As early as the 1940s it was noticed that blood group AB had a higher incidence of cancer than the other blood groups. On the plus side, group AB’s tolerance perhaps minimizes the chances of allergies and other autoimmune diseases, such as arthritis and inflammation.

There may be a similar survival benefit with regard to possession of a B antigen that is shared between groups B and AB. For example, it has been noted that group B individuals are on average a bit taller than their A and O counterparts, (20) and that women who are AB are in general a bit heavier than the other ABO groups.(21)

Something about AB “works” in a modern sense, because these people inherit the tolerance of both A and B. Perhaps this serves to enhance the AB immune system’s abilities to manufacture more specific antibodies to microbial invaders, as it possess neither anti-A or anti-B antibodies.

Blood Group Distribution Today

Our blood groups are not a hit or miss act of random genetics without any real purpose. Rather, the ABO blood groups are a set of differing solutions to a host of environmental variables, such as diet and infection, which insured the survival of the human race. The blood group adaptations were a change in “human antigenicity”—a biological desire to identify with the prevailing currents of the environment.

By looking at the distribution of blood groups today, we can see the threads of our evolutionary history. In the United States, O is the most prevalent blood group, A is second, followed by B, and finally AB. The breakdown in Great Britain is very similar to the U.S. percentages. In Germany there are slightly more A than O; B and AB remain almost the same as U.S. percentages. In Japan and China As, Os and Bs are fairly evenly split, and the AB percentage increases over that found in European populations.

Until the end of the Second World War, physical anthropology usually meant the comparison of various physical characteristics of the body between different human populations and individuals. This usually included measurements of the body and its parts, especially the skull. However probably as a result of the intensive use of blood transfusions during the war the blood groups have come to provide an alternative to the often highly subjective methods of body measurement. Here was a definitive biological marker, that could be used to map migrations and classify human groupings. Physical anthropology had its first scientific tool.

“History is bunk,” wrote the industrialist Henry Ford. It is a quote with the ring of truth in it. We are destined to interpret past events through the eyes of who left the record (usually the winner) and our own modern day thoughts and rationales. Losers rarely write history and it is just about impossible for the average person to put himself or herself in the mindset of a person living in a world without light, heat, supermarkets and the internet.

Yet of all my writings on the blood groups, it has been their anthropologic significance that readers have time and again told me is their favorite section. There is something very intellectually and emotionally riveting about understanding the ebb and flow of our human experience. Not only is it fascinating from an intellectual standpoint, but we also can see, feel and touch the modern day physical ramifications of these long ago events.

In that sense, we are all survivors.


psycho- physiological- social  dynamics & characteristics


blood group 0   the original

original skin tone :  purple black, indigo/blue black, light blue black, blue brown, (purple tint to lips)  lavender brown, dark or light olive brown, dark olive, light olive, pale olive, pale grey olive, grey lavender white, porcelain lavender white

independent & co-dependent, may be intelligent, may be conscientious, timid to outsiders, close to insiders, loyal to those who are loyal, co-operative or stubborn,  harmonious, meticulous, perfectionists, can be impatient, fun loving, even keeled, can be sarcastic when defensive, can be passionate, dynamic, expressive, dramatic, can be pessimistic, can be defensive, determined, can be aggressive if crossed or slighted, discerning, stays away from ingenuity & stupidity (subjective), polite, escapist, sensitive, protective, particular, survival instincts, pattern oriented, artistic, creative, inventive, scientific, idealistic, intellectual, honest with their subjective thoughts & feelings or non expressive, self ruling or co-ruling, generous, righteous, shy, genuine, wise, mild mannered.

strong immune, lymph, digestive, & metabolic systems.  strong tissue, muscle, & cellular production & reproduction, healthy organ functions. fluidity. equilibrium in system. strong detox systems, self cleansing. much grey matter & protections of the brain, strongest brain health.

tall or medium height. long, graceful, defined muscles & structure, equilibrium, healthy & fertile the most sustainable & youthful blood type. oval or almond  shape face. large deep almond shaped eyes, small or medium nose & bridge, nostril flair pointing down , pouty round lips, longer necks.


blood group A

original skin tone :  ash black, burgundy black, dark or light ruddy brown, rust brown  dark peach or light peach, pale peach, pale tea rose, pale porcelain rose,  albino

tall, long, lean or robust body,  square, boney, angular bone structures.  diamond, rectangular, or long angular face shape & angular jaw bone. finer features, smaller eyes, longer pointed nose, nostrils pointing up or point tip nose, thin lips.

honest with their (subjective) thoughts & opinions, strong willed, diligent, courageous, may be intelligent, determined, leading presence, dignified,  pioneering, dominating, straight forward, strategic, teaching, detail oriented, fond of ruling, domineering, fond of pack mentality, very organized, can be greedy, yet looks out for the interests of all,  status creating, system creating, separatists, can be manipulative, practical, uptight, high strung, can be aggressive & paranoid out of their own making, fond of rules, regulations, values, & policies, attains knowledge, cut & dry, likes to give rule, yet may not obey themselves, competitive, serious, may be fanatical.

blood group B

original skin tone:  brassica nigra, (black mustard), black gold tan, dark golden tan, dark or light honey brown, dark or light honey tan,  honey beige, beige white

medium height, or shorter. strong body structure, rounder muscles, compact structure. round,  heart shape, or wide square face shape. large round eyes, larger flat or bulbous nose  big round lips.

bright, easy going, open, superficial, optimistic, inclusive, seems trusting, yet has trust issues, can be manipulative, can be vengeful, grudge holding, neutral or high emotionality, technically minded, crafty,  fable-ness, creative, loving, stern, joyful, attains baseline, technical, & superficial knowledge, hard working, attention seeking, caring, tough, may be condescending, likeable, friendly, clever, pleasing, over exaggerating, status appeal, co-operative if raises status, silly,  fond of structures of status, fond of rules & mannerisms, may exude humble narcissism, friendly to outsiders, steadfast & predictable.


blood group AB

two people in one.  both blood group A & blood group B. may be two faced.  the least trusting, or trustworthy.





earth empath

new moon waxing    mayan calender 22 wolf 12     9   4oc    wednesday  (febuary 28 1979 )sacred femi nine 9  womb ~ void~ ultra feminine.  pattern in the matter.  wholeness . completion (heaven & earth) cosmic cycles & nature cycles.  108      feet, thighs, womb, heart, ring fingers, intuition  multi-dimensional & multi- elemental



earth’s true chakra system


The Powerful Nature of Being an Earth Empath

http://www.learning-mind.com/types-of-empaths/   i consider myself all of these types of empaths.     especially emotional, animal, fauna empath.



naga tribes


nagas rh negative bloodlines

what does being an 0- naga entail?

Truth seekers
Sense of a “Mission” in life
Empathy & Compassion for Mankind
An extra rib or vertebra.
Higher than average IQ
ESP Ability
Love of Space & Science
More sensitive vision & other senses.
Increased of psychic/intuitive abilities
Cannot be cloned
Lower body temperature
Lower blood pressure
Predominantly black, or Hazel eyes
Increased sensitivity to hot or cold temperature
Piercing Eyes
Tend to be Healers
Empathetic Illnesses
Ability to disrupt electrical devices,


high metabolism, defined muscle structure, the ability to shape shift, tone & define with ease, tri doshic body type, equalized in self, strong genetic code, strong digestion & immune system, disease free, healthy genes, age defying, ten years behind at least,on aging of body & brain (back in ancient times, the immortal ones started aging around 70 or 80 yrs of age), has way more grey matter in the brain thus, slow aging & disease free brain, genius photographic memory, timelessly wise, wise child, super health (although diet, exercise, & lifestyle play a role in health & wellness), does not show/have age, weight, health issues as much as others, no matter the lifestyle, is immune to so much, sometimes too much. causing auto immune disorders, may be hyper sensitive because of sustained awakened consciousness level, sensitive to unnatural things, is in tune with the earth, circadian rhythms, cycles, & geo sentience, does not fit in with their peer group, or society in general, is more of a loner or with others of likeness, seems to know things, others would not have a clue about, has an ingrained ability to just know historical facts & future visions, is a prophet, & very misunderstood, has a clear conduit if harnessed correctly, otherwise unclear. in ancient times called gods, & goddesses of the super natural or underworld,& immortal due to what i have written here.



where did blood types originate from? we can tell (most modernly) by the higher percentages in different places.


where did my blood type genetics originate from? being that my mother is 0-  & father is b-

~naga  bloodline tracing~

my ancient “modern” tracing of 0 naga comes from (north african ~ arabian~  egyptian ~mediterranean – spanish~ -iberian~ gaelic (black irish)  (urlic-finno, gaelic, arabic ~ middle eastern,  north west india )

&  b naga comes from ~ ( scandinavian, russia- ukraine & eastern europe (indo~ (european,  hebrew-arabic)


so where is the root of the nagas? where did we come from?

ab nagas came from south east asia – (- dravidians /neanderthal )   newest blood type

A nagas came from south east asia , migrated through asia,  siberia, northern & central europe.(devisons) ( dragon bloodline)

B nagas came from africa through the middle east & north india into south & central asia,  russia & eastern europe,  neanderthals ) direction north & south east.  (reptilian bloodline)

0 nagas came from  north east africa, middle east, north west india,  eastern mediterranean, south west europe & north west europe    homo heidelbergenisis)- cro magnon  (serpent bloodline)  oldest blood type

A&0 (alpha & omega)


The Lost Continent of Kumari Kandam

The Lost Continent of Kumari Kandam

(Read the article on one page)

Most people are familiar with the story of Atlantis, the legendary sunken city as described by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. Till this day, opinion is still divided as to whether this story should be understood literally or taken merely as a morality tale. Further east in the subcontinent of India is a similar tale, though it probably is less well known compared to that of Atlantis. This is the ‘lost continent’ of Lemuria, frequently connected to the legend of Kumari Kandam by speakers of the Tamil language.

The term Lemuria has its origins in the latter part of the 19 th century. The English geologist Philip Sclater was puzzled by the presence of lemur fossils in Madagascar and India but not in mainland Africa and the Middle East. Thus, in his 1864 article entitled ‘The Mammals of Madagascar’, Sclater proposed that Madagascar and India were once part of a larger continent, and named this missing landmass ‘Lemuria’. Sclater’s theory was accepted by the scientific community of that period as the explanation of the way lemurs could have migrated from Madagascar to India or vice versa in ancient times. With the emergence of the modern concepts of continental drift and plate tectonics, however, Sclater’s proposition of a submerged continent was no longer tenable. Yet, the idea of a lost continent refused to die, and some still believe that Lemuria was an actual continent that existed in the past.

One such group is the Tamil nationalists. The term Kumari Kandam first appeared in the 15 th century Kanda Puranam, the Tamil version of the Skanda Puranam. Yet, stories about an ancient land submerged by the Indian Ocean have been recorded in many earlier Tamil literary works. According to the stories, there was a portion of land that was once ruled by the Pandiyan kings and was swallowed by the sea. When narratives about Lemuria arrived in colonial India, the country was going through a period when folklore was beginning to permeate historic knowledge as facts. As a result, Lemuria was quickly equated with Kumari Kandam.

Bhagavata-Purana, 10th Skanda

Bhagavata-Purana, 10th Skanda. Image source .

The story of Kumari Kandam is not regarded as just a story, but seems to be laden with nationalistic sentiments. It has been claimed that the Pandiyan kings of Kumari Kandam were the rulers of the whole Indian continent, and that Tamil civilisation is the oldest civilisation in the world. When Kumari Kandam was submerged, its people spread across the world and founded various civilisations, hence the claim that the lost continent was also the cradle of human civilisation.

So, how much truth is there in the story of Kumari Kandam? According to researchers at India’s National Institute of Oceanography, the sea level was lower by 100 m about 14,500 years ago and by 60 m about 10,000 years ago. Hence, it is entirely possible that there was once a land bridge connecting the island of Sri Lanka to mainland India. As the rate of global warming increased between 12,000 and 10,000 years ago, the rising sea levels resulted in periodic flooding. This would have submerged prehistoric settlements that were located around the low-lying coastal areas of India and Sri Lanka. Stories of these catastrophic events may have been transmitted orally from one generation to another and finally written down as the story of Kumari Kandam.

One piece of evidence used to support the existence of Kumari Kandam is Adam’s Bridge (also called Rama’s Bridge), a chain of limestone shoals made up of sand, silt and small pebbles located in the Palk Strait extending 18 miles from mainland India to Sri Lanka.  This strip of land was once believed to be a natural formation, however, others argue that images taken by a NASA satellite depict this land formation to be a long broken bridge under the ocean’s surface.

The location of Adam’s Bridge between India and Sri Lanka

The existence of a bridge in this location is also supported by another ancient legend.  The Ramayana tells the tale of Sita, Rama’s wife, being held captive on the island of Lanka. Rama commissions a massive building project to construct a bridge to transport his army of Vanara (ape men) across the ocean to Lanka.

As with most so-called myths, it seems likely that there is at least some truth to the ancient Tamil legends of Kumari Kandam, but just how much, is yet to be determined.

By Ḏḥwty


Jayakaran, S. C., 2011`. The Lemuria Myth. [Online]
Available at: http://www.frontline.in/navigation/?type=static&page=archiveSearch&aid=20110422280809000&ais=08&avol=28

Mahalingam, N., 2010. Lemuria and Kumari Kandam. [Online]
Available at: http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/lemuria-and-kumari-kandam/article482101.ece


Alternative Titles: nāga, nagi

Naga, ( Sanskrit: “serpent”) in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, a member of a class of mythical semidivine beings, half human and half cobra. They are a strong, handsome species who can assume either wholly human or wholly serpentine form and are potentially dangerous but often beneficial to humans. They live in an underground kingdom called Naga-loka, or Patala-loka, which is filled with resplendent palaces, beautifully ornamented with precious gems. The creator deity Brahma relegatedthe nagas to the nether regions when they became too populous on earth and commanded them to bite only the truly evil or those destined to die prematurely. They are also associated with waters—rivers, lakes, seas, and wells—and are guardians of treasure.

Three notable nagas are Shesha (or Ananta), who in the Hindu myth of creation supports Narayana (Vishnu) as he lies on the cosmic ocean and on whom the created world rests; Vasuki, who was used as a churning rope to churn the cosmic ocean of milk; and Takshaka, the tribal chief of the snakes. In modern Hinduism the birth of the serpents is celebrated on Naga-panchami in the month of Shravana (July–August).

The female nagas (naginis or nagis) are serpent princesses of striking beauty. The dynasties of Manipur in northeastern India, the Pallavas in southern India, and the ruling family of Funan (ancient Indochina) each claimed an origin in the union of a human being and a nagi.

In Buddhism, nagas are often represented as door guardians or, as in Tibet, as minor deities. The nagaking Muchalinda, who sheltered the Buddha from rain for seven days while he was deep in meditation, is beautifully depicted in the 9th–13th century Mon-Khmer Buddhas of what are now Thailand and Cambodia. In Jainism the Tirthankara (saviour) Parshvanatha is always shown with a canopy of nagahoods above his head.

Naga people (Lanka)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cobra symbolism in a Sri Lankan Hindu statue of the Nainativu Nagapooshani Amman Temple

Cobra symbolism in a Sri Lankan Buddhist statue. According to Buddhist scripture the Naga king Muchalinda shielded the Buddha from getting wet in the rain by coiling round him and holding his large hood above the Buddha’s head.[1]

The Naga people, also known as Cheras, among with the Yakkshas, were an ancient tribe who ones inhabited Sri Lanka. The Naga people appear until the third century BCE as a distinct group in the early Sri Lankan chronicles as well as early Tamil literary works.[2] In the third century BCE they started to assimilate to Tamil language and culture.[3]

The Nagas had by the 9th century AD or probably earlier assimilated into the major groups, the Sri Lankan Tamils and Sinhalese. Naga identity was visible in history through persons with the name Naga added to their personal names.[4][page needed] According to several authors they may have been a race of the Dravidians.[5][6]


The Yakshas and the Nagas are depicted in the Pali epic Mahavamsa as the early inhabitants of Lanka when Vijaya arrived in the island in 500 B.C.[citation needed][a] According to Manogaran, some scholars also “have postulated that the Yakshas and Nagas […] are the aboriginal tribes of Sri Lanka”.[6] Holt concludes that they were not Tamils, but a distinct group.[2][b]

Ancient Naga tribes[edit]

The Oliyar, Parathavar, Maravar and Eyinar who are widespread across South India and North-East Sri Lanka are all Naga tribes.[citation needed]

Early Tamil literary works such as Kaliththokai mention that many Naga tribes such as Maravar, Eyinar, Oliar, Oviar, Aruvalur and Parathavar migrated to the Pandyan dynasty and started living there in the Third Sangam period 2000 years ago.[citation needed]


See also: Nāga

In the Ramayana, the mythological island Lanka is been often identified with Sri Lanka. The inhabitants of Lanka were mentioned as non humans, mainly referring to the Rakshasas and Yakshas, but also mentioning the Nagas.[6] Indrajit, the son of Ravana was married to Sulochana, a Naga princess.

Naga territory[edit]

An early copper coin discovered at Uduththurai port carries the name Naga bumi in Tamil, referring to the Naga Dynasty of the North.[citation needed]


Naga Nadu[edit]

By the time Buddhism had reached Tamilakam, the twin epics of ancient Tamil Nadu Silappatikaram (5-6th century CE) and Manimekalai (6th century CE) were written, speaking of Naga Nadu across the sea from Kaveripoompuharpattinam.[10]

Manimekalai speaks of the great Naga king Valai Vanan and his queen Vasamayilai who ruled over Manipallavam, todays Nainativu, which is also known as Nagadeepa. [11]Their daughter, the princess Pilli Valai had a liaison at Nainativu islet with the early Chola king Killivalavan; out of this union was born Prince Tondai Eelam Thiraiyar, who historians note was the early progenitor of the Pallava Dynasty.[12] He went on to rule Tondai Nadu from Kanchipuram. Nainativu was referred to as Manipallavam in ancient Tamil literature following this union. Royals of the Chola-Naga lineage would go on to rule other territory of the island, Nagapattinam and Tondai Nadu of Tamilakam.[citation needed]

Cīttalai Cāttanār, the author of the Manimekalai, reflected the perception at the time that Naga Nadu was an autonomous administrative entity, kingdom or nadu stretching across coastal districts, distinguished from the rest of the island also ruled intermittently by Tamil kings.[citation needed]

The Pali work Mahavamsa and the Tamil work Manimekalai, mentions a dispute between two Naga kings, which was settled by the Lord Buddha.[4][page needed]

Ptolemy in his 1st century map of Taprobane mentions Nagadiboi. Ptolemy mentions in 150 CE that King Sornagos (Chora Naga of Anuradhapura), a descendant of this lineage, ruled from the early Chola capital of Uraiyur during this time. Kaveripoompuharpattinam received many adulatory comparisons to the Naga capital Kadiramalai in the classical period.[citation needed]



It is also believed they were great irrigation engineers who built water storages.[1] The Giant’s Tank dam and reservoir system in Mannar, Sri Lanka is considered by some (Such as Author, Mudaliyar C. Rajanayagam) to have been built by the Nagas based on the extensive ruins and the presence of villages with surrounding the port with Naga name (e.g. Nagarkulam, Nagathazhvu and Sirunagarkulam).[13]

Snake worship[edit]

Sri Lankan Tamil Hindus since ancient times have regarded the cobra as a divine being by the passing down of Naga traditions and beliefs. Further, a cobra can be found entwining itself round the neck of the supreme Hindu god Shiva as the serpent-king Vasuki. Cobras can also be found in images of Vishnu.[1][5]

The Myths of Naga Origin
By:- R.B. Thohe Pou *

The Nagas inhabit in four states in India and in the Western parts of Myanmar. The Nagas live between Brahmaputra and Chindwin River specifically from 930E to 960E longitudes and 240N to 270N latitudes.1 The area is about 100,000 Sq.Km of the Patkai range within the longitudes between 930E and 970E and 231/20 N and 280N latitudes.2

According to J.P. Mills, the Nagas live in the area, “bounded by the Hudkawng valley in the north-east, the plains of Brahmaputra valley to the north-west, of Cachar to the south-west and of the Chindwin to the east. In the south, the Manipur valley roughly marks the point of contact between the Naga tribes and the very much more closely interrelated group of Kuki tribes Thadou, Lushei, Chin, etc,”3

In India they are found in Nagaland, four Districts in Manipur, one District in Assam and two Districts in Arunachal Pradesh. In addition to this, many Nagas inhabit in Western parts of Myanmar (Burma). In Myanmar, Nagas are concentrated in the Somrah Tract bordering India, which comes under Kachin state and Saging Sub-division.

There are 45 major tribes with the population about 3 millions in 2001. There are 13 tribes in Nagaland, 17 tribes in Manipur, 2 tribes in Assam, 3 tribes in Arunachal Pradesh and 10 tribes in Myanmar. According to Naga National Right and Movements NNC, there are 77 tribes, which includes the sub-tribe and major tribes. According to 2001 Census, the Nagas from Nagaland and Manipur comprise of about 2.7 millions and the rest of the Nagas comprise of about 0.3 millions of population.

The Nagas have no written historical record about their origin and the route of migration to their present inhabitation; some writers believed that Nagas immigrated from three directions – North East, North West and South East. However it is a general believe that the majority of the Nagas immigrated from South East through the corridor of Indo-Myanmar border to the Naga Hills.

According to the report on the province of Assam in 1854 by Mills A.J. Moffatt, the British first came to contact with the Nagas in 1832 when the Captain Jenkins and Pamberton along with 700 soldiers and 800 coolies or porters to carry their baggage and provision marched across the Naga Hills in their attempt to find a route from Manipur to Assam. When the British came to the Naga Hills, the Nagas continued to raid the British troops in different villages. The fight between the Nagas and British continued till 1880 when the fort of Khonoma was finally fell into the hand of British troops.

After 1880, the British troops dominated in many parts of the Naga Hills but the Konyak tribe continued to fight the British till 1939.4 The British administered in most of the Naga villages but they did not controlled over in all the Nagas villages. When the British left the Nagas Hills after the India got Independence, the Nagas declared Nagaland (Nagalim) as an Independence Nation on 14th August 1947. But the Indian Government did not recognize the unilateral declaration of the Naga National Independence and the indigenous Naga people continue to struggle to get sovereignty from the Indian Government.

What some of the authorities of Nagas say about Nagas?

The Nagas belong to the Mongoloid stock. The Philologists have grouped Naga languages as belonging to the Tibeto-Burma family. There are some Naga villages, which have different dialects, which cannot be understood by other villagers but each tribe has common language. For instance, there are three Poumai Naga villages, which cannot be understood by other villagers. The Tangkhul Nagas – every village has a different dialect, which is not understandable by other villagers.

The Nagas are very courageous, industrious, cordial, colorful, amicable and truthful. They have a sense of humor, very candid and hospitable to any strangers too. Different authorities on Nagas commented on Nagas. To quote Dr. Verrier Elwin, “They are a fine people, of whom their country is proud, strong and self reliant, with the free and independent outlook characteristics of highlanders every where, good to look at, with and unerring instinct for color and design, friendly and cheerful with a keen sense of humoured, gifted with splendid dances and a love of song.”5

J.H. Hutton, an authority on Nagas commented, “One of the first characteristics that strikes a visitor to the Angami’s country is his hospitality, a hospitality which is always ready to entertain a visitor and which forms a curious contrast to the very canning frugality of his domestic economy…Another very striking trait of the Angami is his geniality. Both men and women are exceedingly good humoured and always ready for a joke.”6

J.P. Mills commenting on the Lotha Nagas he wrote, “Their sense of humor is well developed and they are always already with a laugh.”7 It is a Naga tradition, they treat their guests with great hospitality and honor their guests by offering with meats and rice beer. Maj. Gen. Sardeshpande, one of the Indian Authors on Nagas comments the Khiamungans and Konyaks Nagas as,

“Nagas are magnificent. You have to see and live amidst them to believe this simple statement. A very large majority of us know little about them. The little that we now is about their nakedness, headhunting and anti-national, hostile, underground, insurgent activity for the last thirty years of independence India’s consciousness of it north-eastern periphery…By nature they are suspicious, sensitive, wary, distrustful, inward-looking, volatile and very very proud. There cannot be a better friend than the Naga once he identifies his friend; there cannot be a worse foe than the Naga once he feels deceived or let down. Deep inside his inscrutable exterior and penetrating eyes there is tremendous warmth, great geniality. Sharp intellect and immense good-will.”8

Shimray R.R., one of the Nagas Authorities on Nagas wrote about the Nagas as, “Indeed, they are fierce looking and hostile to those with bad intentions, but certainly not all the attributes are right. They are, on the contrary, very good to those who are good to them, and friendly to those who are friendly and exceptionally hospitable to those who come with good intentions.”9

Many authorities on Nagas wrote that Nagas are amicable, hospitable and humorous. In addition, the Nagas love democracy, equality, justice and freedom of life from every aspect of life. The Nagas seniors do not expect high respect and reverend from their juniors as they believe in equality and freedom in life. Every one believes in equality and there is no system of slave and master in Naga society. The Nagas are a big family where there is no division of caste, creed and religion. The Nagas are generally candid, amicable and hospitable people but they also endowed with their own weak points and negativism. They are orthodox, conservative, and sensitive to their traditions and do not like criticism.

Myth of Nagas Origin

Many ethnologists had studied the tribe of Nagas since ancient time. The British were the pioneers who encountered the Naga people and studied about them. The Nagas have not its own written history about their origin. But the folksong, folk-tale and legends of different tribes of Nagas are the sorts of Naga history that we can trace the origin of the Nagas.

The different authorities on Nagas hypothesized or contributed their opinions about the origin of Nagas. Some authorities traced the origin of Nagas to the head-hunters of Malay and the races of Southern Seas. While the other authorities, traced the origin of Nagas to China. The British who were acquainted with Nagas since in the early 19th century (1832) studied the different tribes of Naga people. The Nagas are different in many aspects from other tribes in Northeast India.

The uniqueness of this tribe brought the curiosity to the British ethnologists to study and wrote about them. Some of the pioneer ethnologists who studies and wrote about Nagas were Dalton, Sir James Johnstone, J.P.Hutton, J.P.Mills, Woodthrope, H.H.Godwin Austin, Mackenzie, Damant etc. Most of the pioneer ethnographers on Nagas were soldiers. The authorities of Nagas were non-professional Anthropologist. This may be one of the reasons that no one study deeply on Nagas’ origin and etymology of the word NAGA and bring out satisfactory explanation with evidences.

Some of the important notes and documents on Nagas were lost and damaged in 1879 insurrections. Damant had Manipur Dictionary and a paper on Angami Nagas, but the Nagas destroyed in the Kohima stockade. The pioneer ethnologists had tried their best to accumulate the information on Nagas but they have inadequate knowledge and information about the Nagas, perhaps due to communication gap (interpreter) and not written history.

There may be slight difference perspective on Nagas by the outsiders and insider writers but the work of the pioneer authorities on Nagas should be acknowledged and appreciated regardless of their incomplete knowledge (notion) on Nagas. The different authorities on Nagas have different perspective about the origin of Nagas. One of the pioneer authorities on Nagas, Sir James Johnstone, who came to contact the Naga people in 1874, wrote about the origin of Nagas as,

“Where the Angami came from must be uncertain till the language of our Eastern Frontier and scientifically analysed. The late Mr. Damant, a man of great talent and pioneers of research, had valuable paper regarding them in hand, but it perished in the insurrection of 1879. The probability is, that they came originally from the South-Eastern corner of Thibet.”10

The folktale and legends of Nagas does not trace their origin from Tibet. But all the stories of origin pointed to the southeast. The folktale and folksong did not support the above theory of Nagas’ migration from Tibet. When James Johnstone came to contact the Nagas in 1874 at Samagudting, an old Naga (centenarian) told him that they had come from the North East and were the Seventh generation living there. Another pioneer authority on Nagas,

J.H. Hutton wrote, “Where the country near Manipur is a much more difficult problem and one quite beyond the scope of this book. All sorts of origins have been connected with the Head-hunters of Malay and the races of the Southern Seas on the one hand, and traced back to China on the other hand.”11

He also stated that the terrace rice cultivation system of Angami is resembled with those tribes of Bontoc or Igorots in Philippines. He did not precisely state about the origin home of Nagas. W.C. Smith a missionary and Sociologist traced the origin of Nagas to the southward movement through Brahmaputra valley.

“It is this southward movement which brought this people down the Brahmaputra valley when they were forced into the mountain vastness or otherwise isolated tract and became the ancestors of the Nagas and other more or less wild tribes. This southward movement pressed on down through Burma and the Malay Peninsula to Borneo and to the Philippines where we have the Dyaks, Igorots and related groups.”12

The hypothesis given by him also may be untenable since the Naga tribes traced their origin to southeast and supported by folk-tale and folk songs. One of the Indian authorities of Nagas, Murot Ramunny writes, “The original home of the Nagas, before they reached the areas they now occupy, is rather difficult to ascertain. Different authorities have connected them with headhunters of Malay, the races of the southern seas, while other trace them back even to China.”13

About the origin of the Nagas, a Naga scholar Dr. Horam also traced the Naga origin to the Southern Seas. He stated that Nagas custom and culture are similar to those tribes in the Southern Seas in many aspects. He writes,

“There can be little doubt that at one time the Nagas must have wandered about before they found this their permanent abode; from their myths and legend one gather that there is dim relationship with the natives of Borneo in that the two have a common traditional way of head hunting; with the Indonesians, as both use the loin loom for weaving cloth. The embroidery on the Naga clothes resembled the kind done on Indonesian clothes.”14

The recent study of the origin of Nagas was by a Naga scholar name R.R. Shimray. He supported Marshall’s view of Indo-China southwards movement. Thus he wrote,

“The Nagas and other tribal of North East India followed the Southward movements toward Indo-China. It has been seen that the ancestors of the Nagas had lived at Sea Coast in the remote past. This has been inferred from the various evidences that the Nagas at one distant past were living near the Sea. This theory is further supported and upheld by the very fact that the last take-off in their migration was from Thangdut in Burma (previously called Hsawngsup and pronounced as Samsok in Tangkhul). The last migration from Samsok (Thangdut) in Burma to Makhel in Mao, Longpi and Hunphun in Ukhrul District is very clear and most recent and is supported by historical facts and monuments.”15

According to Keans, the movement of population had undoubtedly been first southward from the Asiatic mainland, then from the Archipelago eastward to the Pacific. In accordance with this view, it is sure that Nagas were one of the groups from Asiatic mainland who migrated southward direction but they retreated to North West direction to the Naga Hills after reaching the Southern seas of Moulmein. Some tribes from Indonesia, Philippines and Malaysia are seems to be the same group of Nagas who retreated from the Southern Seas.

It is believed that some other groups of Nagas went down further from Moulmein to Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines. Quoting Shimray’s view, “It is very probable that the Nagas had first followed the southward movement and after reaching the coast or some Islands, they turned North-west leaving their brothers somewhere near the coast or perhaps in some Islands.”16

When we study the history of Malaysian origin – they also traced back their origin to Yunnam province in China. The Nagas once lived near the Moulmein seas coast but probable they did not lived in the Island. If they lived in Island there is less possibility to retreat to Naga Hills. But it is sure that once they lived near the Seas coast or must have come from the Seas coast.

It is supported by historical facts (folktale, folklore, legends etc) and the evidences showed that Nagas uses the cowries-shells and conch-shells in decorating their dresses (kilts), which is not found in the hills. The cowries-shells are not found in Naga Hills but the Nagas are fond of cowry’s shells and familiar with the marine shells in decorating their Kilts (pant). They must have used marine shells during their sojourned and acquired the knowledge from the Southern seas of Myanmar.

Shakespeare, who wrote the history of Assam, also wrote that Nagas are resembled to those tribes of Dyaks and they loved the marine-shells, which is not found in Naga village. Thus he wrote, “They recognize a slight resemblance in matters of counting name domestic implements, in a way village architecture and their Head-hunting propensities to those of the Dyaks, while their love marine-shells (which they part with but rarely) may seem to point to a bygone home near the Sea, though they are far inland-residing community.”17

Dr. Horam, an eminent Naga scholar writes, “Some people believe the present group of Nagas came from the Philippines where there is a place called Naga”18 However the above belief is just an assumption because the Naga village (present Naga city) in Philippines was name by Spanish troops only in 1573, when they discovered a flourishing Bikol village with abundance of NARRA TREES in that place.

This Naga city is named after Narra trees, in Bikol Narra is known as Naga. The folk songs and legends of Poumai Naga narrated that they (Nagas) came from Deimaofii, (literal meaning Island or land with water) and ultimately reached MAKHEL following the big rivers.19 Here Deimaofii may also refer to Seas Coast since the Nagas probable did not come from Island. One of the Naga Scholars Late Shimray also believed that Nagas must have come from the seacoast or at least some Islands. Thus he wrote,

“The hypothesis that the Nagas must have come from the seacoast or at least seen some Islands or the seas is strengthened by the life-style of the Nagas and the ornaments being used till today in many Naga villages. The Naga being left undisturbed for such a long time, have retained the culture of the most ancient times till today. Their fondness of Cowries shells for beautifying the dress, and use of Conch shells as ornaments (precious ornaments for them) and the facts that the Nagas have many customs and way of life very similar to that of those living in the remote parts of Borneo, Sarawak, Indonesia, Malaysia etc. indicates that their ancient abode was near the sea, if not in some islands.”20

The folktales and folksongs precisely tell that the Naga crossed the Indo-Myanmar border and came to the present Naga Hills. According to the folktale and mythology of Poumai Naga, the Pou or Shiipfowo was one of the old man who led the Nagas from Indo-Myanmar to MAKHEL (Dispersal site of Nagas) where, all the Nagas were dispersed to various parts of Naga Hills. The entire groups of the people who emigrate from Irrawaddy valley (Myanmar) to MAKHEL were known as NAGA. \

It was only after they dispersed from MAKHEL, they called by the name of tribe naming after their progenitor (forefather). For example, Poumai Naga tribe is named after their progenitor name POU and Mao tribe after the name of MEO. Thus different name of the Naga tribes like Seema, Lotha, Angami, Ao, Tangkhul, Poumai Naga etc came to exist after they departed from MAKHEL.

The whole Naga tribes came for a meeting for a deliberation at Shajouba Village near the Makhel before their departure from Makhel. According to the legend of Poumai Naga, a man name POU (of the prominent leader of Naga) erected his walking stick on the ground after the meeting and left for home. But his walking stick sprouted and rooted inside the earth. The then walking stick growth to be a wild pear tree (Tyaobe) is still alive at Shajouba near Makhel. Whether it is sprouted from Pou’s walking stick or not – the Pear tree is believed to be planted during the Nagas departure from Makhel. The Nagas called this Pear tree as departure tree since it was planted during their departure. The wild Pear tree (Tyaobe) or departure tree planted during their departure meeting is a very important tree, which is still kept reverence by all the Nagas who migrated from Makhel.

The falling of any branches from the wild pear tree due to storm or wind signifies the bad omen. If any branches of that tree fall, the Makhelian (Poumai, Angami, Mao, Tangkhul, Zeliangrong Seema, Lotha, Maram and other Nagas) who dispersed from the dispersal site observed a day, which is forbidden to work in the field. People were strictly restricted to choke-off even a small branch from that tree. It is believed to be a sacred tree for the Nagas. It is believed that anybody who cuts down any branches of that tree will die instantly and heavy rain and storm would come to the areas.

The folktale and folksong of Poumai is convincing that the old man POU led the Naga people from Indo-Myanmar border to the Naga dispersal site (Makhel). It is because the wild pear tree is still alive as evidence. The Nagas considered the wild pear tree as sacred and no one dares to cut any branches from that wild pear tree (Tyaobe). The folksong and folktale of Tangkhul tribe also supported that the Nagas came from Myanmar. Thus Shimray an authority of Nagas wrote,

“The party that went to the right (Northeast) were the Tangkhuls and the Somras. The legend goes that one very brave man called ‘Shimray’ led Tangkhul Nagas. This party went on cutting down the bananas trees so that those who would be coming after them may follow the sign. However, since the banana trees sprouted quickly, the later wave of migration followed the left party thinking that it would be difficult to catch them (Tangkhuls). This is why the majority of the Nagas are found in the Mao-Maram, Tamenglong and Nagaland areas. The Tangkhul and Somrah Nagas were very small in number compared to the other party went leftward.”21

The legends of Tangkhul narrated that they went to Northeast and other greater group went to northwest and settled at Makhel, Senapati District, Manipur, from there the various Naga tribes were dispersed to the Naga Hills. The majority of the Tangkhuls might have went to the north east side during the retreat from Myanmar to Manipur, but the historical facts showed that many of the Tangkhuls were the descendants of Pou or Shiipfowo who were dispersed from Makhel.

The Moi clan (now Muivah clan, Tangkhul) was the descendants of Pou. Basically the Muivah clan was Poumai. The folktales and legends precisely shows the evidence that Nagas were migrated from Myanmar and settled at MAKHEL (Dispersal site of Nagas). The folktale and legends of different tribes of Naga showed that they were migrated from Myanmar. However still there is not any scientific proof about the original place of Nagas, where from they came to Naga Hills.

From the oral history, we may conclude that Nagas hailed from mainland of China who migrated to Myanmar along the rivers and corridors. They migrated to the Southern Seas of Myanmar along the rivers and lived near the Seas coast of Moulmein (Myanmar) for generations before they retreated to Irrawaddy and Chindwin valleys. They lived for generations in Irrawaddy valley but most probably they were driven out to the hills by more advanced races in warfare. The Nagas emigrated from Irrawaddy valley through Indo-Myanmar corridor and settled down at MAKHEL (Dispersal site of Naga tribes), where they were believed to be dispersed to various parts of Naga Hills.


1. R.R. Shimray (1985): Origin and Culture of Nagas, New Delhi: Somsok Publications,p-2
2. Vashum R., (2000): Nagas’ Right to Self Determination-An Anthropological Historical
Perspective, Delhi: Mittal Publications, p-9 (cf. Raising et al 1994:1)
3. J.P. Mills (1922): The Lothas Nagas, London: Macmillan & Co. Ltd., p-xvi
4. Iralu D. Kaka (2001): Nagaland history and their relations with other communities,
http:kuknalim.com/modules.php?name=history 5. Op cit. Shimray (1985) p-10
6. J.P. Hutton (1921): The Angami Nagas, Oxford University Press,p-39
7. J.P. Mills (1922): The Lotha Naga
8. Gen. Maj. Sardespande (1987): The Pakoi Nagas, Delhi: Daya Publishing House,p-vii
9. R.R. Shimray (1985): Origin and Culture of Nagas, New Delhi, Samsok Publications,p-6
10. Johnstone Sir James K.C.S.I (1896): Manipur and the Naga Hills, Delhi Cultural Publishing House, p-28
11. J.P. Hutton (1921): The Angami Nagas, Oxford University Press,p-8
12. op.cit. shimray (1985), p-3
13. Ramunny Murot (1998): The world of Nagas, Delhi: Northern Book Center, p-5
14. M. Horam (1975): Naga Polity, New Delhi: B.R. Publishing Co. p-28
15. Shimray R.R.(1985), p-21
16. Ibid p-13
17. Shakespeare L.W. (1914): History of upper Assam, Upper Burma and North East Frontier, p-197
18. Horam (1975), p-25
19. Personal interview (2003): Saluni P. (Head man Koide village) interviewed on 23 May
at Koide village and Vio R. Ex-MLA interviewed on 3rd June at Vakho village.
20. Shimray (1985), p-13
21. Ibid, p-31



Naga Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the Nagas in Indian epic literature. For the present day Naga people, see Naga people. For the mythological Nagas, see Nāga.

In the Mahabharata the Naga Kingdom is the territory of a hardy and warlike[1] tribe called Nagas. They were also considered as one of the supernatural races like the Kinnaras.

The Sanskrit word Naga[edit]

The word Naga in the Sanskrit language means snake or serpent. It seems likely that the Naga people were a serpent-worshipping group who were later described as serpents themselves in ancient Indian literature. Ayus people were Serpent cult people from the beginning. Serpents are reptiles with “hoods”. Snakes are reptiles without hoods. Maha Vishnu’s Sesha Naga was a huge serpent with 7 hoods. That needs to be differentiated from Shiva’s one headed snake.

References in Mahabharata[edit]

Mahabharata epic begins with history of Nagas, in astonishing detail, spanning the initial chapters in the first book (Adi Parva). These chapters were distributed into three sub-volumes called Paushya, Pauloma and Astika.

Naga races

  • MBh (1,57)

Naga race in north-west India was almost exterminated by Janamejaya, the Kuru king in Arjuna‘s line, who conducted the massacre of Nagas at Takshasila. This massacre was stopped by Astika, a Brahmin whose mother was a Naga. The names of the principal Nagas known widely for their achievements, and slain by Janamejaya is mentioned at (1,57). They were described to be belonging to different Naga races:-

Takshaka‘s Race  :- Puchchandaka, Mandalaka, Pindasektri, Ravenaka; Uchochikha, Carava, Bhangas, Vilwatejas, Virohana; Sili, Salakara, Muka, Sukumara, Pravepana, Mudgara, Sisuroman, Suroman and Mahahanu. (Takshaka’s son Aswasena is mentioned as belonging to the Airavata’s race at (8,90). This could mean that Takshaka’s race, was a branch of Airavata’s race.)

Kauravya‘s Race  :- Aryaka, Kundala Veni, Veniskandha, Kumarka, Vahuka, Sringavera, Dhurtaka, Pratara and Astaka. (Kauravya’s race is mentioned as a branch of Airavata‘s race at (1,216).

Dhritarashtra‘s Race :- Sankukarna, Pitharaka, Kuthara, Sukhana, and Shechaka; Purnangada, Purnamukha, Prahasa, Shakuni, Dari, Amahatha, Kumathaka, Sushena, Vyaya, Bhairava, Mundavedanga, Pisanga, Udraparaka, Rishabha, Vegavat, Pindaraka; Raktanga, Sarvasaranga, Samriddha, Patha and Vasaka; Varahaka, Viranaka, Suchitra, Chitravegika, Parasara, Tarunaka, Maniskandha and Aruni. (Dhritarashtra was Airavata’s younger brother (1,3).)

Nagas, Pannagas and Uragas

Nagas were mentioned as born of Surasa and Pannagas another Naga race, was mentioned as born of Kadru at (1,66). Pannagas and Nagas were mentioned as separate but related Naga races at (3,85). Pannagas were mentioned to denote Nagas at (3-172,180,289) (7-142) (9,45) (12,47) (13,98) Nagas destroyed by Arjuna at Khadavaprstha is described as Pannagas (5,124). Pannagas and Uragas were mentioned as separate but related races at (6,65). Uragas were mentioned to denote Nagas at (1-1,172) (3-167,179,187,223) (many other references) Uragas and Nagas were mentioned as separate but related Naga races at (3,158) -in Yaksha territory; also at (7-160,198) At (1,172) is mentioned that Uragas along with Yakshas, Rakshasas, Gandharvas, Pisachas and Danavas as aware of the history of Arya kings.

The names of the principal Naga Chiefs[edit]

At (1,35) (Birth of Nagas) the name of principal Naga chiefs were mentioned as:-

Sesha (Naga Ananta) was the foremost, and then Vasuki. Then were born Airavata, Takshaka, Karkotaka (linked with Nala, king of Nishadha), Dhananjaya, Kalakeya (was also mentioned as an Asura clan), the serpent Mani, Purana, Pinjaraka, and Elapatra, Vamana, Nila, Anila, Kalmasha, Savala, Aryaka, Ugra, Kalasapotaka, Suramukha, Dadhimukha, Vimalapindaka, Apta, Karotaka, Samkha, Valisikha, Nisthanaka, Hemaguha, Nahusha (Nahusha was also described as a king in the Lunar Dynasty; Pururavas (first king of Lunar dynasty) -> Ayus – > Nahusha), Pingala, Vahyakarna, Hastipada, Mudgarapindaka, Kamvala Aswatara, Kaliyaka, Vritta, Samvartaka, Padma, Mahapadma, Sankhamukha, Kushmandaka, Kshemaka, Pindaraka, Karavira, Pushpadanshtraka, Vilwaka, Vilwapandara, Mushikada, Sankhasiras, Purnabhadra, Haridraka, Aparajita, Jyotika, Srivaha, Kauravya, Dhritarashtra (also mentioned as a Gandharva king), Sankhapinda, Virajas, Suvahu, Salipinda, Prabhakara, Hastipinda, Pitharaka, Sumuksha, Kaunapashana, Kuthara, Kunjara, Kumuda, Kumudaksha, Tittri, Halika, Kardama, Vahumulaka, Karkara, Akarkara, Kundodara, and Mahodara.

At (5,103) (Matali’s history) the name of principal Naga chiefs were mentioned as:-

Vasuki, Takshaka, Karkotaka, Dhanjaya, Kaliya (linked with river Yamuna and Vasudeva Krishna), Nahusha (also a king belonging to Lunar Dynasty), Aswatara, Vakyakunda, Mani, Apurana, Khaga, Vamana, Elapatra, Kukura, Kukuna, Aryaka (linked with Bhima), Nandaka, Kalasa, Potaka, Kalilasaka, Pinjaraka, Airavata, Sumanmukha, Dadhimukha, Sankha, Nanda, Upanandaka, Apta, Kotaraka, Sikhi, Nishthuraka, Tittiri, Hastibhadra, Kumuda, Maylapindaka, the two Padmas, Pundarika, Pushpa, Mudgaraparnaka, Karavira, Pitharaka, Samvritta, Vritta, Pindara, Vilwapatra, Mushikada, Sirishaka, Dilipa, Sankha-sirsha, Jyotishka, Aparajita, Kauravya, Dhritarashtra, Kuhara, Krisaka, Virajas, Dharana, Savahu, Mukhara, Jaya, Vidhira, Andha, Visundi, Virasa, and Sarasa.

At (14,4) (Last moments of Bala Rama) the name of principal Naga chiefs were mentioned as:-

Karkotaka and Vasuki and Takshaka and Prithusravas and Varuna and Kunjara, and Misri and Sankha and Kumuda and Pundarika, Dhritarashtra, and Hrada and Kratha and Sitikantha of fierce energy, and Chakramanda and Atishanda, Durmukha, and Amvarisha, and king Varuna

At (1,65) (Genesis) the names of the sons of Kadru were mentioned as:-

Sesha or Ananta, Vasuki, Takshaka, Kumara, and Kulika are known to be the sons of Kadru.

At (2,9) Nagas linked with Varuna were mentioned as:-

Vasuki, Takshaka, and the Naga called Airavata, Krishna and Lohita (see Lauhitya), Padma, Chitra, Kamvala, Aswatara, Dhritarashtra, Valahaka, Matimat, Kundadhara, Karkotaka, Dhananjaya, Panimat, Kundaka, Prahlada, Mushikada and Janamejaya wait upon Varuna. Many Asuras also is mentioned as waiting upon Varuna. Nagas, Daityas (a clan of Asuras), Sadhyas and inferior Devas were mentioned to follow Varuna (3,41).

Prominent Nagas[edit]

Naga King Takshaka[edit]

Main article: Takshaka

Acts of PandavaArjuna and Naga Takshaka was the cause of enmity between Kuru kings and Nagas. Arjuna killed Takshaka’s wife who dwelled in the Khandava Forest. Takshaka killed Parikshit the grandson of Arjuna by poisoning him in league with Shringi. King Janamejaya conducted a massacre of Nagas to avenge his father Parikshit’s death. Later a sage named Astika ended this enmity between Kurus and Nagas.

Naga King Nahusha[edit]

Nahusha is mentioned as a Naga at (1,35) (5,103).

At (13,99) Nahusha is mentioned as ruling even the Deva territories, and later degraded to the status of a Naga king. It is repeated at (12,342). The history of Nahusha becoming the king of Deva territories is mentioned at (5-11 to 17). He was powerful and renowned. Power corrupted him and he was later banished from the throne of Deva territories. It seems he later lived as a small king of the Naga race. Yayati (a king of Lunar Dynasty) is mentioned as his son at many places in Mahabharata. Thus, it seems, he later became known as a king belonging to the Lunar Dynasty of kings in ancient India.

A snake (a viper) attacked and afflicted Bhima in a forest called Visakhayupa, situated at the source of river Yamuna. This incident is mentioned at (3,176). At (3,178) that snake is described as Nahusha. He is mentioned here as the son of Ayus (Pururavas (first king of Lunar Dynasty) -> Ayus -> Nahusha), thus he becomes a forefather of the Pandavas. This raises a doubt whether the lunar race of kings originally branched from the Naga race of kings. Many kings in the line of Purus and Kurus, all being branches of the lunar race, like Dhritarashtra and Janamejaya also were mentioned as Nagas at various places. Kuru city Hastinapura also is some times mentioned as Nagapura (one of its meaning being the city of Nagas).

  • In Book 12 and 13 Nahusha is mentioned as a learned king conversing with many sages like Bhrigu, Chyavana and Agastya

Naga chief Aryaka[edit]

Nagawanshi Aryaka (sansk. आर्यक) was mentioned to be a member of Naga king Vasuki‘s palace. He was described as related to PandavaBhima. He was the grandfather of the father of Kunti, the mother of Bhima. He recognized Bhima as his kinsmen when the Nagas rescued Bhima, a boy then, and brought him to the palace of Vasuki. Bhima was food-poisoned, tied up and thrown into river Ganges at a place called Pramanakoti, by Duryodhana (1,128).

Aryaka is mentioned to have born in the race of Kauravya. Kauravya is born in the race of Airavata. Aryaka’s son was named Chikura. Chikura was slain by a Suparna. Chikura’s wife was the daughter of a Naga named Vamana. Chikura’s son was named Sumukha. Matali, the charioteer of Deva king Indra chose Sumuka as his daughter Gunakesi’s husband (5,103).

Naga Prince Iravan[edit]

Main article: Iravan

During a 12-year-long pilgrimage over the whole of India, Arjuna, leaving Indraprastha, arrived at the source of the Ganges (now known as Rishikesh) where it entered the plains. There he met a Naga woman, Ulūpī. She took Arjuna to the mansion of Kauravya, king of the Nagas. Kauravya himself was mentioned as an Airavata. Arjuna spent one night with Ulūpī and came back from the palace of Kauravya to the region where the Ganges enters the plains (1,216).

Ulūpī’s former husband was slain by a Suparna and she was childless. A son named Iravan was born to Arjuna and Ulūpī. But Ulūpī’s brother hated Arjuna since he destroyed the Nagas dwelling in Khandava forest and so abandoned Ulūpī and his son.

Iravan grew in the territory of Nagas, protected by his mother. Later when Arjuna visited the region to the northeast of the Naga territories, he went and met Arjuna. He accepted him as his beloved son, and asked him to render assistance in battle when required. Iravan entered the Kurukshetra War with an excellent cavalry force driven by Naga warriors (6,91). He participated in the war (6-84,91) and was slain by the Rakshasa Alamvusa, the son of Risyasringa (6,91).

  • Ulūpī is mentioned as interacting with Arjuna‘s another son Vabhruvahana, born of another wife Chitrangada at (14,79).
  • Ulūpī and Chitrangada are mentioned as being accepted into the palace of Hastinapura at (14,88)
  • Ulūpī and Chitrangada are mentioned with other wives of the Pandavas at (15,1).
  • Ulūpī and Chitrangada are mentioned as departing, when Pandavas set for their last journey (17,1).
  • A weapon used in Kurukshetra War is named a Naga weapon (8,53).

Other Nagas[edit]

Intermixing of other Indian races with Naga race[edit]

  • Naga Nahusha is also mentioned as a king in the Lunar Dynasty of Arya Kings (3,178).
  • A king named Riksha in the race of Puru (a branch of Lunar Dynasti is mentioned as marrying the daughter of a Naga in the race of Takshaka (1,95).
  • Naga Aryaka is described as the grandfather of Kunti‘s father. Kunti is the mother of Pandavas. (1,128).
  • Iravat was mentioned as the son of Arjuna and a Naga woman named Uloopi, born in the race of Airavata (6,91).
  • Sage Somasrava, the priest of Janamejaya was the son of a Brahmin named Srutasrava and a Naga woman. (1,3).
  • Sage Astika was the son of a sage in the race of Yayavara Brahmins (1,13) and a Naga woman (sister of Vasuki) (1-14,15,48). Though but a boy, he had great gravity and intelligence. And he was reared with great care in the palace of the Nagas (1,48). He prevented the massacre of the Naga race by Janamejaya (1-15,56).
  • Naga women alias Nakar women of Kerala married Namboodiris of the Aryan race resulting in one of the sub-caste of Nair clan of Kerala.

Other references[edit]

  • The Daitya heroes Sunda and Upasunda defeated the Devas, Yakshas, Rakshasas, Nagas and Arya kings. (1-212,214)
  • Rakshasa king Ravana also defeated all of them (3,289).
  • Naga women were mentioned to be very beautiful (3,263) (4,9) (6,105).
  • In the Harivamsa, Karkotaka and his Nagas were mentioned to be vanquished by Kartavirya Arjuna, the thousand human armed Chandravanshi Yadava King of Haihayas.
  • Yakshas, and Rakshasas, and Nagas were mentioned to use 17 types of crops for their food. This crops were mentioned as produced by a king named Prithu, the son of Vena (12,58).
  • At (14,44) the word Uraga is used to denote all the reptile-species and the word Naga is used to denote all snakes, where it mentions Nagas are the foremost among the Uragas.

See also[edit]

naga mythos

The deluge that ended the Golden Age wiped out a race of ‘giants’ but the serpent gods survived and returned to rule. They were described as having the face of a human, but the tail of a dragon.

The Indian-Hindu name for Anunnaki Hybrids was Nagas.

Jame Churchward also described a reptilian type race such as what is described by the Dzyan and Indian Hindu. Churchward said the Nagas came from Lemuria.

Like the Nommo from Sirius and the Annedoti of Babylonia legend, the Nagas were said to have a close connection to water and entered their underground centers through wells, lakes and rivers. The Nagas were said to be the offspring from the interbreeding of humans with the serpent gods.

According to Indian Epics the reptilian Nagas intermingled with the white people and although their relationship was often one of conflict and distrust, the two interbred to produce a reptilian-mammal hybrid that became the ‘Aryan kings!’. These are the ‘divine’ royal bloodlines or demi-gods and are the same bloodlines that ruled ancient Sumer.

In Media, now Turkey, the Iranians knew the kings as Mar, which means snake in Persian (Mars=Snakes). They were called the ‘dragon dynasty of Media’ or ‘descendents of the dragon’.

In the late 19th Century Churchard was shown ancient tablets in the secret vault of a monastery in northern India. They told the story of how the Naacals or Nag Mayas (serpents) from the continent of Lemuria (MU) had traveled to India via Burma to establish a colony there. These tablets described the destruction of MU, the motherland, and how the Naga Mayas or Nagas had traveled to India.

The Vedic scholar David Frawley explains how the Vedas, reveal that the earliest royal bloodlines of India, the priest kings descend from the Bhrigus who arrived from a place across the sea. The Bhrigus were an order of adepts initiated into the ancient knowledge (Gods, Sages and Kings: Vedic Secrets of Ancient Civilizations) that the monarchs of these bloodlines included the ‘serpent king’ Nahusha.

They expanded into five tribes that populated a large part of the Indian population. Churchward says that the Nagas also populated China, Tibet and parts of Asia which is very likely… and that their goddess religions were also the origin of the Maya people of Mexico.

Researcher Michael Mott, in “Caverns, Cauldrons and Concealed Creatures” writes,

“The Nagas are described as a very advanced race of species with a highly developed technology. They harbor a disdain for human beings, who they are said to abduct, torture, interbreed with and even to eat. The interbreeding has supposedly left a wide variety of forms, ranging from completely reptilian to nearly human in appearance.”

The Priest kings of the Peruvian Incas were symbolized by the snake and wore bracelets and anklets in the image of a snake.

Cecrops, the first Mycenaen king of Athens, was depicted as a human with a serpent tail.

In Arab poet Firdowsi‘s Book of Kings, the history of Iran completed in AD1010, tells the story of the birth of Zal, the ‘Demon’ or ‘Watcher’ offspring, whose appearance horrified his father, King Sam. This Watcherhybrid called Zal married a foreign princess named Rudabeh, a descendant of the ‘serpent king’, Zahhak, who was said to have ruled Iran for a thousand years.

As you see the serpent or reptilian lineage can be found on every continent…, many times interbreeding with humans that have been interbred with Nordics, which carries the blonde hair and blue eyed traits. These Nordic features are for some reason very desirable to the Serpent cultures and as legend goes ‘to be descended from Noah’ is a code for the illuminati bloodlines.

Through the study of the works of James Churchward and Mark Pinkham (The Return of the Serpents of Wisdom) we can further trace the lineage of Dann back to Lemuria and Atlantis.

A branch of the Atlanteans and Lemurians, called the Carians (Carian = “Serpent Sea People of the Atlantean Fire God”), the Eus-Cara (same meaning as Carians) and the Tuaraks (“Serpent People of the All Glorious Fire God”) colonized the planet.

The Tuarkes became the Tuaraks who settled in North Africa with the Atlantean knowledge; the Eus-Cara became the Basques of Spain; and the Carians became known as the ‘Phoenicians’. (Churchward also documents the Carians in the Americas.)

The Taureg people of North Africa today, descendents of the Tuarkes, have allowed some visitors to see their ancient cavern systems in the Ahaggar Mountains where they have murals of their Atlantean ancestors holding snakes and swords with tridents on the blades. People invited into the underground temples of the Tuaregs claim to have seen green reptile ‘monsters’ called ‘Ourans’ , which the Tuaregs worship as the physical representation of their serpent goddess or ‘grandmother’. The Tuaregs also perform a dance in honour of the Atlantean fire god, Voltan or Votan.

According to Tibetan holy Book of Dzyan verifies this tunnel system stating that “there were fighting between builders and destroyers and fighting for space”. Forces of light were forced to leave many territories which they inhabited before.

The system of underground tunnels was encircling the whole planet. The western tunnel network had its beginning under Atacama desert in Chile and went in direction of Tiahuanaco – Cuzco – Mount Shasta – Grand Tetons, under American mainland and under Atlantic ocean towards Atlas mountain range in western Africa and then under Ahaggar/Tibesti mountain ranges towards their final station – the Giza pyramids.

One important center was under Mato Grosso region in Brazil, where Agartha had strong connection with Atlantean cities on the surface. The Himalayan network was of extraordinary importance. Here underground civilization developed as a mirror of Atlantean colony which existed on the surface in the area of contemporary Gobi desert.

Of course it was no desert then, it was a subtropical paradise. Himalayan network had its source under the Gobi desert and it expanded under Takla Makan desert and then onwards under Pamirs, Altai, Karakorum, Baltistan, under Kunluns and under Chang Tang plateau towards Himalayas. The Atlanteans and Lemurians established established colonies in Egypt, then known as Khem or ‘Land of the Fire Serpent’.

Khem was the name of the deity symbolized as a black goat and later called ‘Pan’.

The goat is still a symbol of worship for the Illuminati and Satanists today under the name Baphomet. There are many surviving records that claim a lineage of Egyptian kings going back tens of thousands of years before the formation of the Egyptian civilization described by official hisotians. This supports the stories of an Atlantean/Lemurian colony in Egypt long before the cataclysm . (David Icke , Children of the Matrix).

The colonization of Greece is far older than officially claimed as well. The Atlantean colonists of Greece worshipped a serpent goddess called Athene or Neith. This deity was symbolized as a serpent, snake, sphinx or goddess covered by snakes. You will see that wherever the reptilian bloodlines have located, the worship of a serpent goddess has always been the center of their rituals under names i.e. Athene, Barati, Isis, Semiramis, El, Artemis, Diana and Hecate.

Other Atlantean/Lemurian colonists were known as the Pelasgians (People of the Sea) the Danaans and the female Amazons. The Pelasgians worshipped the serpent Moon goddess Dana, later Diana (Artemis), and then later Atlantean goat god called Pan. They first landed on the Peloponnesus in Greece and settled in Arcadia, according to ancient Greek records. Arcadia has always been a sacred place to the Illuminati bloodlines and was apparently a name for Atlantis. This colony (called Athenians) went to war with Atlanteans before the deluge.

The Dananns left Atlantis to settle in Asia Minor (now Turkey), Greece and the islands of Aegean.

The name Danaans derived from their serpent Moon goddess, Dana or Diana. The Danaans made the headquarters of their serpent worshipping culture on the island of Rhodes, a name that originates from a Syrian word for serpent…

Rhodes was the home of the Danaan brotherhood of initiates and magicians known as the Telchines.

The Greek historian, Diodorus, said these initiates had the ability to heal, change the weather, and ‘shape-shift’ into any form. The name Rhodes, which is connect to the German “Rot”, meaning red, as withRothschild (Red-Shield) became a code name for the bloodlines.

Malta, too, was was an important center in 3500 B.C. and the home of a major Mystery School.

Under Malta is a vast network of tunnels and megalithic temples where secret rituals took place and still do today. Malta’s original name was Lato, named after Mother Lato, the serpent goddess. The Knights Templar secret society was formed in the late 11th century to protect the reptilian bloodline or ‘Le Serpent rouge ‘ the red serpent or serpent blood, together with their associated order, the highly secretive Priory of Sion.

The Danaans also settled on Cyprus and in ancient times it was known as Ia-Dan or the “Isle of Dan”. The name of the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea, a place so important to the Druids, has the same origin, no doubt. The Tauras Mountains in Turkey, the Balearic Islands and Syria were other Danaan settlements and they traveled from Atlantis to Britain where they became known as Tuatha de Danaan or the “People of the Sea” .

The female Amazons were another branch of the Hesperides or Hespera, a name for Atlantis. They, too, followed the goddess Athene or Nieth and venerated her symbol, the double-headed axe. They founded shrines to the goddess in many places, including the famous centre for Diana worship at Ephesus and other locations along the Turkish coast. The ‘Canaanites’ also descended from Atlantis/Lemuria.

Mark Amaru Pinkham describes the migration of Atlanteans to ‘Canaan’ in the Return of the Serpents of Wisdom:

“One branch of these Atlantides were the Tyrrhenian, the people after whom the present Tyrrhenian Sea is named.

The Tyrrhenian eventually split in half to become the Etruscans, the Carians or Phoenicians, a tribe which eventually migrated to Canaan, a territory of the Asia Minor Coast, which can be translated as the ‘Land of the Fire Serpent'”

  • Britain, one of their colonies

  • Europe

  • Scandinavia

  • North Africa

  • the mountains of Turkey

  • Iraq

  • the Americas 




culture appreciation & cultural appropriation


my favorite response to this article link listed above:

Alicia Gleason Shamanism is the oldest spirituality of humanity reaching back to 30-60,000 years ago when the first humans left Africa. Subsequently, as humans spread across the globe they took shamanism with them and indigenous groups all over the world developed their own traditions. Shamanism is native to Europe as well, but the Romans who invaded Europe in its tribal and Shaman days, destroyed it and erased it from the European people’s. Then, when the Europeans came to the America’s they did the same thing–except that Native Americans have retained their Shamanic Traditions. We live in a time of the Rainbow Warriors–when people of all nations and walks of life rejoin with each other as brothers and sisters and heal this earth together. Shamanism is a natural spirituality of the Earth.

May we all walk together in peace, love, unity, and respect. May we bring balance to our cultures, homes and to our own hearts. May we respect the traditions of old and build a bridge to the new traditions being reborn. May we all remember, all life is sacred.

my response to this article:

i appreciate the sentiment & deep feelings expressed from the expressive perspective of a truth in regard to native american people in this article. i understand light skin privilege, throughout history & today in american culture. i understand the people’s history of the united states, i read the book by Howard Zinn. i understand the oppression, anger, sadness, despair, soul/spirit loss, more anger, & a re-grouping, healing, empowering, integrating within a culture of oppressed people. i understand “why” native american people would take offense to certain things. specific native traditions/culture used by non-tribal members, in past time & today, when the very culture, land, & ways of native traditions has been stripped from the native americans not to long ago. there is a phase of re-grouping, healing, & integrating within those peoples. part of which is taking a stand for their land, their culture, & the call for respect of their specific culture. most of which has been out of anger. this i understand. there are some cultures that take offense to certain things if the culture has been oppressed, by a culture. thus, the counter culture movement of the sixties was an act of rebellion (manufactured or not), against (tpab) the powers at be. a hysterical act of individual freedom, re-grouping, healing, integrating that which was lost, from imperial-industrial-corporate civilizations, patriarchy, & dogmatic religions. a movement of bringing the ancient ways & earth centered spirituality, from neo taoism, neo buddhism, neo hinduism, slavic shamanism, neo paganism, neo druidism, goddess & earth worship, back to earth centered spirituality due to recognized cultural soul loss from western civilization, & history of patriarchal dogma from decades of oppression & religion manipulated  upon our deepest ancestors via endless wars, genocide, slavery, raping, dogmatic religions, imperialism etc. of the east. not to mention decades of killing, burning at the stake, raping, slavery, & oppression of women to sit down & shut the fuck up & worship an invisible man in the sky & abide by man made dogmatic imperial religions. massive genocide occurred in ireland due to british rule. the roman-british-english have tried to rule over ireland & scotland for the longest time, colonizing & stripping of our indigenous pagan culture, earth centered spirituality, gaelish, celtic, druidic, scandinavian, shamanic-slovic, siberian culture which can be traced all through many places in the east, from the iberian peninsula, through egypt, the middle east, & central asia on through eastern europe & has deep roots throughout the entire east. not to mention the paganism in the basque country & iberian peninsula which has its pagan roots in north & west africa, eygyt, the mediterranean islands, ancient middle east, central asia &eastern europe. all of which is/was RICH in culture. then the separation or fleeing wars & imperialism of our ancestors via migration from ancestral lands of the east & to the west, america, united states. a deep awakening occurred in the sixties, an understanding of our ancient history & ancestry, a healing & re-grouping, integrating. most all of which, was/is women’s & earth wisdom that was raped from our ancestors. women of the east were deeply! oppressed, stripped of their wisdom, culture, raped, killed, or reformed to dogmatic religion & imperialistic thinking on top of more wars, empires upon empires, upon empires, upon empires of male rule. talk about decades of oppression. through generational understanding, my generation is the offspring of the sixites generation. my generation was/is that of multi-culturism, respecting the oppressed in society, a unifying, healing, & understanding. the following generation is even more so. some counter cultures within a culture (western civilisation) & the new age movement are authentic & many are certainly “capitalized” on for profit, that’s the infliction of emotional distress that the native american people feel, because its in their face. this capitalising for profit of authentic or in-authentic counter culture movements, native american traditions or not, has a deeper political agenda attached. tpab are good at erasing, or disrespectfully infusing culture or counter cultures for what ever side of the agenda they are on. then the newest generation naively buys into the “superficial” capitolizing & infusing of culture incited from the counter culture or new age movement (authentic or not). as for the new age movement infusing native american culture with other international earth centered spirituality,  i believe some of the new age movement to be authentic & some aspects of it, not so much. i’m not into black & white thinking on such matters. i think bringing awareness to such matters is important. understanding & respecting the authenticity of situations, people, biological race, cultural identities, spirituality on all sides of the spectrum. understanding what is degrading to cultures (on all sides of the spectrum) the spectrum of skin tones has little to do with cultural identity, spirituality, or religion, and a whole lot to do with genetics & dna. lets just clear that up. ultimately, we are not! our nation states, culture, or spirituality, & religion. we are not black, white, yellow, or red. this is a social construct of racist racial politics. we can all agree about one thing in “america” most everyone suffers from soul/spirit/cultural loss at a deep level, thus counter cultures in the sixites revived the loss of ancient spiritual wisdom of our deep ancestors & brought about radical change to this country. about culture.all biological human races, all culture, spirituality, & religion has been interwoven in space, time, & place in ancient history all over the world, from the very beginning of humanoid time.

lets look at skin tone, personally, i have olive skin tone like Kim K.


many different biological races & different cultures migrated to america over time for many different reasons. some of us were refugees of war & have intertwined with earth wisdom & have not forgotten or ancient roots. some of us were artists, poets, writers, seamstress, handicraft working peoples, farmers. some of us were deeply discriminated against in new york. we sought refuge in our art, books & poetry that intertwined with nature, such as Khalil Gibran & Henry David Thoreau, art works & old culture music, art, culture, practices, wholisitc living in harmony with nature. staying true to our roots while yes indeed “civilized” & kind of “christianized”. i get guidance from my soul. i don’t need a guru, though Osho blows my mane back. MY ways are not anyone’s ways but MINE!

i was born in america, thus i’m a type of “native american” aren’t we all here, who were born in america . all of our ancestors came from somewhere else. i certainly don’t play games on a “black & white” chess board.

women, african americans, & native americans have just learned how to be somewhat free here in america, nothing but a couple of years ago on the grand scale of things. we are all still freeing, healing, empowering, integrating, learning. we need time, space, & patience from other to do so.

so, i guess my question is. how do we as human beings, go about respecting our real biological races ( dna & genetics), (without resorting to racist color-coding) national & culture/spirituality that is so interwoven & mixed together just as most of our dna is? how do we respect our likeness/resonance & differences/in-differences? how can we find respect within the circle of life that is ultimately connected within every single living being on this earth & the great spirit? what is the authentic solution? how do we go about solving our in-differences with respect & harmony? how do we honor one another, support each other, make peace, agree to agree or agree to disagree peacefully on certain issues? how do we raise awareness with the dignity that we have left, & respect that is difficult to find on the full spectrum of things, from all sides? how do we heal? how do we heal earth? what can we discern & learn? what can we equalize & harmonize? how do we fight for our rights with dignity without resorting to spiritual, intellectual, emotional, & physical violence? we are all so similar & so different & unique. i guess the real question is , how can we find “authentic” harmony?

who owns culture?  no one does & we all do.

race is a social construct. people put people in color categories. white is the color of paper. black is the color of a chalkboard. people are colorblind. people identify with places, nations, cultures, spirituality, & religion as their race also. all of these identifications have been infused, adapted, traded, re-integrated, shared, etc….throughout eons of history. no own ones culture. culture is not an item to be possessed. all ideas stem from ideas, that stem from ideas, that stem from ideas, (anciently & modernly).

wholistic science is upon us, thus race is really determined by dna & genetics. race is biology of humanoid.

culture appreciation is understanding history of culture, understanding the sacred. integrating into ones culture or not.

there is no such thing as culture appropriation, for culture can not be owned. yet, there is such a thing as racism, ignorance, & disrespect. certain “aspects” of cultures may find offense to certain things. its all subjective.

i understand lighter skin privilege & class separation in the modern world that is still prevalent today. i understand racism & cultural invalidation,  most all cultures of peoples have adapted some form of racism with each other throughout history & today. this is a sad given. i understand native american people being disturbed by a non tribal member wearing a war bonnet or a chief’s headdress . a war bonnet or headdress is pretty significant in native american cultures, along with many other cultures in the world. however, if a girl was wearing simple native american spiritual representation for the fact she envelopes, understands, & supports native american spirituality, native lives, land, & lives by ancient native code of ethics in appreciation with the earth, i would honor her adaptation & appreciation to a culture that resonates with her personally & spiritually. if she has her own earth spirituality, any worldly tribalism, or say, nea paganism,(a form of tribalism) & wore nature in her attire, flowers, feathers, bones, etc. i would honor her nea pagan devotion because it comes from a sacred place with in the psyche, heart- soul evolving, personality, journey,  & physical being.

hinduism may have started out as an ethno pagan religion,  it’s actually the most ancient form of psychology. but it evolved into the first democracy, as more of a philosophy, a uniting of many beliefs & religions. thus, many colors of people have been devoted hindus throughout the ages. perhaps one resonates with some hindu practices, or is learning through one’s own personal spiritual journey. same goes with all other ancient philosophies ,spiritualities, & religions.

throughout history, we all have traded goods, customs, traditions, values, art, style, culture, spirituality, religion, ethics & so forth. this is deeply infused worldwide, just as modern culture.

personally, i grew up a UU uu-chalice-300x300

i started studying psychology & spirituality when i was fourteen. i started infusing different philosophies & spiritualities when i was twenty. i wore bindis & desi wear, flowers & feathers in my hair, jewelry from all over.  my sacredness displayed inside & out, my sacred space, sacred meditations, practices, & lifestyle. i still do. i appreciate culture, because deep in my roots i am apart of the all.

the pursuit of serenity

i’m deeply serene in my natural neutral balanced state. which i happen to hold most often, this does not mean i lose my serenity from time to time, this does not mean i don’t go though phases of depression if i’m surrounded by dissonance & ignorance. emotions are fleeting. ~!~ i agree with this article,(the link below) though i also think that happiness stems from being a deeply healed, empowered, integrated, balanced person.
my life is serene most always, emotions undulate. i have a great life, i am really pure inside & out, for the most part, healthy & becoming healthier, seeking more balance & inner peace, i am my own unique perfect temple inside & out, i have a dog and cat that i love, basic necessities taken care of & have my dream home in a place that’s perfect for me. i have wonderful dreams and goals, i’m on my own path with purpose & just being. i’m an artist in all ways, i love myself & my little life i’m creating for myself. & i live in the now, like right now i am typing. if i feel depressed, i ask myself ” am i sad with myself or am in the company of dissonant energy.”


photo of Rajkumari

ego vs. heart




all living beings have excess to their chakra systems, electro magnetic frequencies in tune with different organs & fields in the body & aura. some are much more sensitive (in tune) to the energy fields of themselves, others, & the environment around them. some carry a balanced harmonious frequency while others are more prominent or restricted in certain energy fields, meaning an expansion of energy or restriction of energy,in areas of the body. some are so sensitive & in tune that they can shift energy frequencies within themselves easily. we all reside more or less in the energy/aura/chakra field/s most prominent to us naturally.
we can think of the chakra system as origins of consciousness. where one’s consciousness or soul resides. the expressions of the spirit article give a great example of the energy systems in our bodies. it is most healthy to be balanced in all chakra points. not too prominent & not too restrictive, imbalance causes spiritual~ mental~emotional~ physical health issues.
my most prominent chakra points that i try to balance are my sacral chakra & heart chakra. i naturally live through my soul found right below my heart chakra & right above my solar plexus. yet i can be imbalanced when dealing with those who are prominent or in excess in their solar plexus. so many people reside in unhealthy ego consciousness.

a healthy balanced ego is that of empowerment. self individuated, very self aware, self healed, self empowered, self sustaining, becoming best version of unique self. the ability to be in self control, self direction, creative & be able to direct others if need be.
the healthy ego is a form of will power. one who exudes natural power. the healthy ego serves itself to serve others. inspire through example, is validated from within, does not inquire or incite competition, which breeds envy, does not seek anything outside oneself for fulfillment, embraces the journey not the destination, heals from other’s ego manipulations, seeks wholeness & authenticity in ones soul, not ego. the healthy ego looks inward, even when looking outward its for inward evolution of consciousness. a healthy ego can seem really empowered & protective of oneself if surrounded by ego consciousness, & can fall into unhealthy ego consciousness if not aware & balanced. i know i have mocked or mimed 3d consciousness only adding to unhealthy ego consciousness of other.

an unhealthy ego is an ego that is not self aware, or self empowered. thus may feel threatened by one who is self empowered. the unhealthy ego seeks outward recognition, is naturally competitive thus breeds envy, may be envious, greedy, latter climbing, power hungry, outside of oneself. seeks everything outside oneself for fulfillment, is all about the destination,unhealthy ego consciousness is calculating, scheming, manipulative/ unhealthy egos tend to manipulate soul centered individuals.

When our egos are trying to get us to focus our energies on anger, lust, jealousy, resentment, judgment, negative desires etc. we must learn how to take dominion over our lower selves and bring the power of our free will choice into our conscious awareness.
Are we going to serve our egos or are we going to serve our Inner Gods? We have to learn how to not allow ourselves to be hypnotized by our inner darkness and learn how to increase our LIGHT through greater awareness and light filled action. -Sabrina
The “RAISE YOUR VIBRATION” book will help you transform your life and your state of consciousness. It can be purchased off of Amazon all over the world or directly from me at: RAISEYOURVIBRATION.COM

i love this writing above, i have always focused on my inner passion & creativity(since i was a little girl), love for my self, & those who love themselves & hold pure heart intention, resonating unity, (even if i found/find more dissonance than resonance with people)- i have always been able to agree to disagree peacefully & respect differences (i was raised to do so) “most” always. i’ve learned, instead of judging to try to understand & discern appropriately. as for resentment well, that’s what has caused my bitterness & annoyance. resentment is the one ego emotion that has been difficult for me. so many people reside in ego consciousness, which i have not understood in past “naivete”, thus had disturbed my purity of inner wholeness.

A how-to book for spirituality by Sabrina Reber
i’m so self intelligent & love my uniqueness. i feel sad when people don’t own themselves, love themselves, & shine through their own unique soul, thus they try to underestimate or belittle my own self love & self awareness. if only people knew the authentic inter-connectedness of all unique individuals, would they maybe accept their own uniqueness. all people are different, unique to themselves, unequal, yet everyone should be treated with equal respect. that’s difficult to do in a world that does not hold this view. so much fussing & fighting. i try to react with graceful fierceness in speaking my truth, or i don’t react at all. ~!~
i wish people would stop “trying” to destroy people. period. no one has the power to destroy anyone, people give people permission to destroy them, unless they do physical harm. i used to hold victim consciousness, not empowered, naive, i used to let the abusive or absurdities of humanity affect me, because i’m naturally an empath, i would be confused or traumatized by other people’s inner hurting & projecting, then i learned how not to be affected. such toxic people have no affect on me, i’ve learned to be an apath to such energy. unless they cross my personal boundaries
i choose to be around genuine, healthy, truly loving individuals. there are some people that actually love themselves, are spiritually, mentally, emotionally, & physically healthy, who know how to love with depth, freedom & pure intention, thus pure joy is found in this principle of assertive 4d living. most people reside in 3d, (a fake sort of ego happiness or misery) makes a 4d person cringe to be around 3d mentality, & causes us to become toxic. thus i choose to be around pure heart centered individuals or no one at all.





The Chakras System,

Our Seven Life-Force Energy Centers

perfect balance ~!~  chakra aligned physique. no chakra point is restricted or prominent. healthiest & most fertile body type.


Chakra” is a Sanskrit word literally meaning “wheel.”  These centers were named as such because of the circular shape to the spinning energy centers which exist in our subtle etheric body, the non-material energetic counterpart to our physical body.  There are seven main chakras and they are located along the spine extending out the front and back of the body.  Each chakra has a number of specific qualities that correspond to the refinement of energy from the base-level material-self identity, located at the first chakras, up to the higher vibration spirit-level awareness of being at our crown.  These energetic centers represent our highest level of integration split, prism like, into a spectrum of colors. Our opportunity in studying them is to learn how to master each chakra’s essence and unite them all into a unified field of brilliance.  As such, we re-unite our disparate parts into a radian light of full self-awareness.

The chakras are formed at the junction of three connected energy shafts that ascend the spine, one on each side of the central channel, the Shushumna. The two lesser channels of energy — the Pingala on the right and Ida on the left — run parallel to the spinal cord. Chakrasboth take up and collect prana (life force energy) and transform and pass on energy. Our material bodies could not exist without them for they serve as gateways for the flow of energy and life into our physical bodies.

Each chakra is associated with a certain part of the body and a certain organ which it provides with the energy it needs to function. Additionally, just as every organ in the human body has its equivalent on the mental and spiritual level, so too every chakracorresponds to a specific aspect of human behavior and development. Our circular spirals of energy differ in size and activity from person to person. They vibrate at different levels relative to the awareness of the individual and their ability to integrate the characteristics of each into their life.  The lower chakras are associated with fundamental emotions and needs, for the energy here vibrates at a lower frequency and is therefore denser in nature. The finer energies of the upper chakras corresponds to our higher mental and spiritual aspirations and faculties.

The openness and flow of energy through our chakras determines our state of health and balance. Knowledge of our more subtle energy system empowers us to maintain balance and harmony on the physical, mental and spiritual level. All meditation and yoga systems seek to balance out the energy of the chakras by purifying the lower energies and guiding them upwards.  Through the use of grounding, creating “internal space,” and living consciously with an awareness of how we acquire and spend our energy we become capable of balancing our life force with our mental, physical and spiritual selves.

In order for us to become fully self-realized and in harmony with our physical and spiritual nature our denser lower energies need to be harmonized with the lighter energies of the upper centers. This is to say our survival and base tendencies have to be raised to incorporate a heart-felt spiritual focus expressed in all areas of our being. Indeed, each of the upper-level energies corresponds and refines a lower level counterpart: 7th with 1st, 6th with 2nd, 5th with 3rd.  In the center of our being is full integration into the heart.

Each center has an integral function in creating our energetic balance. It is through the study of our energetic and physical being that we can create health, emotional stability and spiritual bliss. The following chart maps out the primary qualities of each chakra, its corresponding location in the body, color, physical and emotional realms of influence, and its greater significance.











The Chakras System,
Our Seven Life-Force Energy Centers
Chakra” is a Sanskrit word literally meaning “wheel.”  These centers were named as such because of the circular shape to the spinning energy centers which exist in our subtle etheric body, the non-material energetic counterpart to our physical body.  There are seven main chakras and they are located along the spine extending out the front and back of the body.  Each chakra has a number of specific qualities that correspond to the refinement of energy from the base-level material-self identity, located at the first chakras, up to the higher vibration spirit-level awareness of being at our crown.  These energetic centers represent our highest level of integration split, prism like, into a spectrum of colors. Our opportunity in studying them is to learn how to master each chakra’s essence and unite them all into a unified field of brilliance.  As such, we re-unite our disparate parts into a radian light of full self-awareness.

The chakras are formed at the junction of three connected energy shafts that ascend the spine, one on each side of the central channel, the Shushumna. The two lesser channels of energy — the Pingala on the right and Ida on the left — run parallel to the spinal cord. Chakras both take up and collect prana (life force energy) and transform and pass on energy. Our material bodies could not exist without them for they serve as gateways for the flow of energy and life into our physical bodies.

Each chakra is associated with a certain part of the body and a certain organ which it provides with the energy it needs to function. Additionally, just as every organ in the human body has its equivalent on the mental and spiritual level, so too every chakra corresponds to a specific aspect of human behavior and development. Our circular spirals of energy differ in size and activity from person to person. They vibrate at different levels relative to the awareness of the individual and their ability to integrate the characteristics of each into their life.  The lower chakras are associated with fundamental emotions and needs, for the energy here vibrates at a lower frequency and is therefore denser in nature. The finer energies of the upper chakras corresponds to our higher mental and spiritual aspirations and faculties.

The openness and flow of energy through our chakras determines our state of health and balance. Knowledge of our more subtle energy system empowers us to maintain balance and harmony on the physical, mental and spiritual level. All meditation and yoga systems seek to balance out the energy of the chakras by purifying the lower energies and guiding them upwards.  Through the use of grounding, creating “internal space,” and living consciously with an awareness of how we acquire and spend our energy we become capable of balancing our life force with our mental, physical and spiritual selves.

In order for us to become fully self-realized and in harmony with our physical and spiritual nature our denser lower energies need to be harmonized with the lighter energies of the upper centers. This is to say our survival and base tendencies have to be raised to incorporate a heart-felt spiritual focus expressed in all areas of our being. Indeed, each of the upper-level energies corresponds and refines a lower level counterpart: 7th with 1st, 6th with 2nd, 5th with 3rd.  In the center of our being is full integration into the heart.

Each center has an integral function in creating our energetic balance. It is through the study of our energetic and physical being that we can create health, emotional stability and spiritual bliss. The following chart maps out the primary qualities of each chakra, its corresponding location in the body, color, physical and emotional realms of influence, and its greater significance.



Crown Chakra

 Top of the head

Symbol is the thousand-petaled lotus


Shiva/ Consciousness 
Unification of colors
Intelligence / Bliss of
Divine Wisdom 
Pineal gland
Upper brain and right eye
Gem = Pearl   Planet = Pluto
Spiral pair = root chakra 7/1
Excessive: cult leader, ego maniac
Deficient: no spiritual inspiration/aspiration
This chakra represents the highest level of consciousness and enlightenment.  It is the connective center to spirit. This center integrates all the chakras with their respective qualities. Mastering the lower vibrational aspects of our being we reside in the full awareness that we are spiritual beings living a human existence


6 Third Eye Chakra
AjnaForeheadIndigoSeed mantra = AumSymbol is a descending triangle within a circle
Knowingness / Intuition / Perception
Self Mastery, wisdom, imagination
Pituitary gland, spine, lower brain,
left eye, nose and the ears
Gem = Diamond   Planet = Sun
Sense = Sixth sense, higher mind
Spiral pair = sacral chakra 6/2
Excessive: overly intellectual; overly analytical
Deficient: unclear thought; deluded
The seat of intuition and direct spiritual vision; it is here that we visualize things through our “third eye” of  intuitive knowledge.  The opening of the third-eye corresponds with spiritual awakening. It is the chakra of forgiveness and compassion.
5 Throat Chakra
VishuddhaThroatLight BlueSeed mantra = Hum
Symbol is a circle within a descending triangle
Communication / Creativity
Sound / Intuition / Synthesis
Self expression / Desire to speak and hear the truth
Thyroid gland, throat, upper lungs,
arms, digestive track
Gem = Sapphire   Planet = Saturn
Sense = Hearing
Spiral pair = solar chakra 5/3
Excessive: willful, controlling, judgmental, hurtful speech
Deficient: lacking faith, unable to creatively express, silent child
The center for communication, self-expression and creativity. This is where the inner voice of one’s truth is expressed.  It is the chakra of diplomacy, of pure relationships with others, and of playful detachment. Speaking with a knowledge of our interconnectivity through Spirit reflects mastery of this energy.
4 Heart Chakra
“Un-struck”Center of chestGreen / PinkSeed mantra = YumSymbol is intertwined descending and ascending triangles
Compassion / Love / open-hearted
desire for self-acceptance
balance emotions, harmony,
place of integration
Thymus, heart, liver, lungs,
blood circulation
Gem = Ruby    Planet = Venus
Sense = touch
Spiral pair = the center 4/4
Excessive: inappropriateemotional expression; poor emotional boundaries
Deficient:  ruthless, no heart,
can’t feel emotions
The center of real, unconditional affection, spiritual growth, compassion, devotion and love. It is the bridge connecting the lower and higher energies of our being and is the place where resides our Spirit, our true Self, free and independent.
3 Solar Plexus Chakra
“Illustrious gem”Slightly above the  naval
YellowSeed mantra = RamSymbol is a descending triangle
Will / Power / Joy / Motivation
self-esteem transformation, identification / mastery
will over your own light
power in relationship with others
vitality, energy
standing steady in your own self
desire to express individuality
Pancreas, stomach, liver, gall-bladder
Gem = Emerald   Planet = Jupiter
Sense = sight
Spiral pair = throat chakra 3/5
Excessive: egotistical, self-absorbed; ambitious self-driven warrior, desire to take control
Deficient: poor self-worth; sensitive servant; feels disliked; martyr; needing to “do” all the time
Located at the center of the body it is the place where physical energy is distributed. It is the center for unrefined emotions and personal power.  It is the center that give us the sense of complete satisfaction and contentment.  Our creativity is fueled by our power of will.
2 Sacral Chakra
SwadhishtanaSlightly below navalOrangeSeed mantra = VamSymbol =  up-turned crescent
Relationships / Sexuality / Empathy
Pleasure / Well-being
connection, delight
emotions, feeling, polarity, change
Gonads and reproductive organs, legs
Gem = Amethyst
Planet = Mercury
Sense = taste
Spiral pair = third eye  2/6
Excessive: manipulative,
controlling, lustful, addictive
Deficient: co-dependent, martyr, submissive, doesn’t feel anything,
shut down
This energy is the center for creating relationships of  all kinds.  It is where we develop an inward sense of self and an outward awareness of others, ego, sexuality, and family and defined as we work with this energy.  The feelings of other people are directly perceived through mastery of  this chakra’s energy.
1 Root Chakra
MuladharaBase of SpineRedSeed mantra = LamSymbol = Square
Shakti / Manifestation
Survival / Grounding / Stability
gravitation drawing into a point
trust, survival, self preservation
root support, desire to be
in the physical world
Sense = smell
Suprarenal glands, prostate
Kidneys, bladder, spine
Gem = Coral
Planet = Mars
Spiral pair = crown chakra  1/7
Excessive: overly possessive;
fearful parent
Deficient:  homeless; ungrounded; victim
The seat of physical vitality and the fundamental urge to survive. It regulates those mechanism which keep the physical body alive.  It is the chakra whose main aspect is innocence.